We investigated the effects of serum amyloid A (SAA) on the production of C-C chemokine motif ligand 2 (CCL2) and the mechanism underlying SAA action in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Stimulation of HUVECs by SAA elicited CCL2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. SAA induced the activations of NF-kappaB and AP-1, which were essential for CCL2 production after SAA stimulation. HUVECs expressed formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), and short interfering RNA knockdown of FPRL1 nearly completely blocked SAA-induced CCL2 production in HUVECs. We suggest that SAA stimulates CCL2 production via FPRL1 and, thus, contributes to atherosclerosis.
"Transfection of FPR2 siRNA into HUVECs completely inhibited SAA-induced MAPK activities, which are important mediators for the induction of CCL2 by SAA in HUVECs (Figure 4). In a previous report, we also demonstrated that knock-down of FPR2 by siRNA completely blocked SAA-induced CCL2 production by HUVECs (Lee et al., 2009). Taken together, our combined results show that SAA induces CCL2 production via a PTX-insensitive pathway downstream of FPR2 in HUVECs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) induced CCL2 production via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-insensitive pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SAA induced the activation of three MAPKs (ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK), which were completely inhibited by knock-down of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). Inhibition of p38 MAPK and JNK by their specific inhibitors (SB203580 and SP600125), or inhibition by a dominant negative mutant of p38 MAPK dramatically decreased SAA-induced CCL2 production. Inactivation of G((i)) protein(s) by PTX inhibited the activation of SAA-induced ERK, but not p38 MAPK or JNK. The results indicate that SAA stimulates FPR2-mediated activation of p38 MAPK and JNK, which are independent of a PTX-sensitive G-protein and are essential for SAA-induced CCL2 production.
Experimental and Molecular Medicine 02/2010; 42(4):302-9. DOI:10.3858/emm.2010.42.4.029 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human formylpeptide receptor 2 (FPR2) and its mouse homologue mFPR2 belong to the G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily. Both FPR2 and mFPR2 recognize a variety of exogenous and host-derived chemotactic peptides associated with proinflammatory conditions. Since endothelial cells actively participate in inflammation, we investigated whether microvascular endothelial cells express mFPR2 and its regulation by proinflammatory factors. We found that resting primary mouse microvascular endothelial cells and a cell line bEnd.3 expressed low levels of mFPR2 at both mRNA and protein levels, which was markedly enhanced by two key proinflammatory stimulants, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-1β. While the inductive effect of LPS was dependent on the JNK MAP kinase, both JNK and ERK MAP kinases were utilized by IL-1β to enhance mFPR2 expression. Overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα attenuated LPS- and IL-1β-induced mFPR2 expression, indicating an essential role for NF-κB in regulating mFPR2 expression in endothelial cells by proinflammatory stimulants. Our results suggest that upregulated mFPR2 in vascular endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions may mediate cell responses in diseases in which mFPR2 agonists are elevated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum amyloid A (SAA) is regarded as an important acute phase protein in coronary artery diseases. However, its involvement in the immune response of atherosclerosis is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of SAA on the secretion of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of innate immunity, in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Our study revealed that recombinant SAA up-regulated PTX3 production in a remarkable dose- and time-dependent manner and the activation of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) was crucial for SAA-induced expression of PTX3 in HAECs. Meanwhile, SAA-induced PTX3 production could be significantly down-regulated by using the specific siRNA sequences for Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). Furthermore, the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was necessary for the up-regulation of PTX3 expression. We also found that the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) played an important role in this process. Our findings demonstrate that SAA up-regulates PTX3 production via FPRL1 significantly, and thus, contributes to the inflammatory pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
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