DLG3/SAP102 protein expression in malformations of cortical development: a study of human epileptic cortex by tissue microarray.
ABSTRACT The human DLG3 gene encodes the synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102), which is concentrated in the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses and involved in receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via binding to the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. In this study, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of the DLG3/SAP102 protein in human epileptic cortex. Tissue microarrays of a large number of specimens from patients operated for medically intractable epilepsy were used for immunohistochemical screening with anti-DLG3 antibody. The cellular distribution of the protein was further investigated in samples of malformations of cortical development, and the amount of DLG3 protein in the total homogenate and in the postsynaptic membrane fraction of these samples was quantified by Western blot. We found a strictly neuronal expression of DLG3/SAP102 in epileptogenic cortex as well as in non-epileptic human cortex used for control. In focal cortical dysplasia and tuberous sclerosis complex, the protein was expressed in most neurons including dysplastic neurons, but not in giant cells. Increased expression of DLG3 protein was observed in the postsynaptic membrane fraction of patients with focal cortical dysplasia. Double-labeling experiments confirmed the exclusive neuronal character of the DLG3 expressing cells and the co-localization of the DLG3 protein with the NR2B subunit. Our results suggest a putative role for DLG3/SAP102 in cortical hyperexcitability and epileptogenicity of malformations of cortical development.
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ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing is universally accredited for expanding the information encoded within the transcriptome. In recent years, several tightly regulated alternative splicing events have been reported which do not lead to generation of protein products, but lead to unstable mRNA isoforms. Instead these transcripts are targets for NMD (nonsense-mediated decay) or retained in the nucleus and degraded. In the present review I discuss the regulation of these events, and how many have been implicated in control of gene expression that is instrumental to a number of developmental paradigms. I further discuss their relevance to disease settings and conclude by highlighting technologies that will aid identification of more candidate events in future.Biochemical Society Transactions 08/2014; 42(4):1196-205. DOI:10.1042/BST20140102 · 3.24 Impact Factor
Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 10/2011; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.rehab.2011.07.455
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ABSTRACT: Structural abnormalities of the brain are increasingly recognized in patients with neurodevelopmental delay and intractable focal epilepsies. The access to clinically well-characterized neurosurgical material has provided a unique opportunity to better define the neuropathological, neurochemical, and molecular features of epilepsy-associated focal developmental lesions. These studies help to further understand the epileptogenic mechanisms of these lesions. Neuropathological evaluation of surgical specimens from patients with epilepsy-associated developmental lesions reveals two major pathologies: focal cortical dysplasia and low-grade developmental tumors (glioneuronal tumors). In the last few years there have been major advances in the recognition of a wide spectrum of developmental lesions associated with a intractable epilepsy, including cortical tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and hemimegalencephaly. As an increasing number of entities are identified, the development of a unified and comprehensive classification represents a great challenge and requires continuous updates. The present article reviews current knowledge of molecular pathogenesis and the pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptogenesis in this group of developmental disorders. Both emerging neuropathological and basic science evidence will be analyzed, highlighting the involvement of different, but often converging, pathogenetic and epileptogenic mechanisms, which may create the basis for new therapeutic strategies in these disorders.Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 01/2014; 11(2). DOI:10.1007/s13311-013-0251-0 · 3.88 Impact Factor