Two outbreaks of campylobacteriosis associated with the consumption of raw cows' milk.
ABSTRACT The present paper summarises the investigation of two different outbreaks of milk-associated Campylobacter enteritis in the Netherlands. In 2005, after a school trip to a dairy farm, 22 out of a group of 34 children developed diarrhoeal illness and Campylobacterjejuni was cultured from the stool samples of 11 of the cases. The illness was found to be epidemiologically associated with drinking raw milk during the farm visit; 86% of the cases could be explained by drinking raw milk. C.jejuni was also isolated from three of 10 faecal samples from dairy cattle collected at the farm. The human isolates and C.jejuni isolates from one of these three samples of cattle faeces revealed identical restriction patterns by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flagellin (fla) typing by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Both epidemiological and bacteriological evidence implicated contaminated raw milk as the vehicle of transmission, though C.jejuni was not isolated from the bulk tank milk or the milk filter collected during the farm investigation. In 2007, an outbreak of enteritis was notified among people who had attended a lunch at a dairy farm where bulk tank milk was served. Of the 19 persons who had consumed raw milk, 16 (84%) had become ill. Of the persons who did not drink the raw milk, none became ill. A significant association was found between tasting the raw milk and being ill (risk difference=0.84, p=0.0011). C.jejuni was cultured from four of seven cases who had submitted a stool specimen. C. jejuni was also isolated from a sample of bulk tank milk and the isolate had an identical flaA PCR-RFLP genotype to isolates obtained from patients. Also in this outbreak both the epidemiological and bacteriological findings support raw milk as the vehicle for the enteritis. These two outbreaks highlight the health risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. As long as legislation allows the sale and distribution of untreated milk these risks will continue. Therefore, consumers need to be continuously informed about the dangers inherent in consuming unpasteurised milk or products made from raw milk. Farmers need to be strongly discouraged from serving raw milk to their visitors.
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ABSTRACT: Despite great advances in the diagnostics and better awareness for food safety and security worldwide, significant numbers of foodborne outbreaks have been traced back to the consumption of milk and dairy products contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Several culture-dependent and culture-independent nucleic acid-based methods have been proposed to identify, detect, and type milk- and dairyborne pathogenic bacteria. In our review, we will provide an overview on why it is of utmost importance to ascertain the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk and milk products; thereafter, we will describe the most commonly used culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, as well as the most attractive ones with regard to their future exploitation, providing the reader with new insights into how and when they can be exploited to ensure the enumeration, and accurate detection at both species and strain level of the most important milk- and dairyborne pathogenic bacteria, even if in a viable but nonculturable state.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 07/2014; 13(4):493-537. DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12074 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Food Microbiology 05/2015; 47:28-35. DOI:10.1016/j.fm.2014.11.004 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and quantification by species of Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks at the end of the rearing period and to identify associated risk factors. A questionnaire about rearing period was completed and caecal samples were collected from 121 broiler flocks in Brittany, France, during 2008. Campylobacter was isolated in 87 of 121 flocks - a prevalence of 71.9% (95% CI, 63.7-80.1%), including 40.5% of C. jejuni and 29.8% of C. coli. The average concentration, in positive flocks, was 7.96 log10 cfu/g and ranged from 3.15 to 10.32 log10 cfu/g. The average concentration by was: 7.57 log10 cfu/g for C. jejuni and 8.44 log10 cfu/g for C. Coli. There was a seasonal effect, with increased risk of Campylobacter colonisation in June, July and August (Odds ratio (OR) = 9.59, 95% CI 1.15-79.75). The other factors, associated with lower risk of Campylobacter colonisation, were: the acidification of drinking water (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.86), antibiotic treatment at the beginning of rearing period (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.55), and rodent control around the house (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.03-0.95). The results show that hygiene practices and biosecurity measures could lead to a reduction in Campylobacter colonisation.British Poultry Science 07/2014; 55(4). DOI:10.1080/00071668.2014.941788 · 0.78 Impact Factor