Two outbreaks of Campylobacteriosis associated with the consumption of raw cows’ milk

The Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, 7200 AE Zutphen, The Netherlands.
International journal of food microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.08). 08/2009; 134(1-2):70-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.12.026
Source: PubMed


The present paper summarises the investigation of two different outbreaks of milk-associated Campylobacter enteritis in the Netherlands. In 2005, after a school trip to a dairy farm, 22 out of a group of 34 children developed diarrhoeal illness and Campylobacter jejuni was cultured from the stool samples of 11 of the cases. The illness was found to be epidemiologically associated with drinking raw milk during the farm visit; 86% of the cases could be explained by drinking raw milk. C. jejuni was also isolated from three of 10 faecal samples from dairy cattle collected at the farm. The human isolates and C. jejuni isolates from one of these three samples of cattle faeces revealed identical restriction patterns by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flagellin (fla) typing by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). Both epidemiological and bacteriological evidence implicated contaminated raw milk as the vehicle of transmission, though C. jejuni was not isolated from the bulk tank milk or the milk filter collected during the farm investigation. In 2007, an outbreak of enteritis was notified among people who had attended a lunch at a dairy farm where bulk tank milk was served. Of the 19 persons who had consumed raw milk, 16 (84%) had become ill. Of the persons who did not drink the raw milk, none became ill. A significant association was found between tasting the raw milk and being ill (risk difference = 0.84, p = 0.0011). C. jejuni was cultured from four of seven cases who had submitted a stool specimen. C. jejuni was also isolated from a sample of bulk tank milk and the isolate had an identical flaA PCR–RFLP genotype to isolates obtained from patients. Also in this outbreak both the epidemiological and bacteriological findings support raw milk as the vehicle for the enteritis.

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    • "The humans could be infected with campylobacter from eating or drinking contaminated food, water, unpasteurized or raw milk or from close contact with infected animals. The consumption of unpasteurized milk has been the most important source of campylobacteriosis outbreaks [17]. Longer life span of dairy cattle than beef cattle can lead to permanent or long-term shedding of campylobacters by dairy cattle and these cattle serve as a long-term reservoir [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the cattle population in order to assess associated risks to public health.
    Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 12/2013; 55(1):87. DOI:10.1186/1751-0147-55-87 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, it appears that turkey isolates are also primarily C. coli or C. jejuni, but C. coli is the most predominant species. Contrary to sporadic cases associated with the consumption of chicken, the consumption of raw, unpasteurized milk has been the most important source of campylobacteriosis outbreaks in the USA, Canada and Europe in the last 15 years (Heuvelink et al., 2009; Jay- Russell et al., 2013; Lejeune and Rajala-Schultz, 2009; Oliver et al., 2009; Schildt et al., 2006). Feces from animals or infected humans may also contaminate waters, which in turn may become another source for campylobacteriosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the most effective protocols to isolate Campylobacter spp. (mainly C. jejuni and C. coli) from food, primarily poultry products, and includes a summary of the current methods recommended by the Food and Drug Administration and the U. S. Department of Agriculture in the USA, and ISO in Europe. The recommended temperature for incubation of the samples throughout the isolation procedure is 42°C. The enrichment of the samples for 48 h, which can be performed under aerobic conditions, is recommended to achieve a detectable number of Campylobacter cells. Bolton broth or buffered peptone water supplemented with cefoperazone and amphotericin B are commonly used enrichment broths. The transfer of the enriched samples to plate media using membrane filters help obtain pure Campylobacter colonies. Charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (CCDA) is the best choice among all plate media. There is no need to add oxygen quenching substances or blood to enrichment broth for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. However, the addition of blood to plate media aids in differential identification of presumptive colonies. Phase contrast microscopy and latex agglutination tests are confirmatory tests for presumptive Campylobacter isolates. The use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays is the simplest and most rapid method to identify isolates to the species level. mPCR assays, or other methods assessing DNA sequence variations, will probably become the confirmation procedure of choice in the future. Recent work with retail broiler meat has revealed that the rinsing of meat is more sensitive for the recovery of naturally contaminated retail broiler meat than current reference methods and requires less time for preparation and processing of the samples. This protocol could be coupled with DNA-based methods for a fast screening of positive samples.
    Journal of microbiological methods 07/2013; 95(1). DOI:10.1016/j.mimet.2013.07.014 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    • "A. Ricci et al. / Research in Veterinary Science 95 (2013) 69–75 73 (Evans et al., 1996; Headrick et al., 1998; De Buyser et al., 2001; Gillespie et al., 2003; Schildt et al., 2006; Lind et al., 2007; Denny et al., 2008; Heuvelink et al., 2009; Lejeune and Rajala-Schultz, 2009). The presence of pathogens in milk is strictly related to their presence in the animals and to the subsequent level of their faecal excretion, as well as to the probability of faecal contamination of milk during milking (transfer rate) (Robinson and Jones, 1981; Waterman et al., 1984; Humphrey and Beckett, 1987; Keene et al., 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study was implemented in the Veneto Region of Italy, aimed at classifying dairy farms which produce milk to be commercialised unpasteurised on the basis of their risk of faecal contamination of milk, which is directly correlated to the probability of a foodborne pathogen, if present in the herd and eliminated through faecal excretion, to contaminate the raw product. Factors considered to be relevant in the definition of the risk of pathogens potentially present in animal faeces to be transmitted to milk, were hierarchically structured, weighted through the application of experts elicitation methods (Analytic Hierarchy Process, Delphi) and used to categorise farms through the application of a herd questionnaire. The probability of faecal contamination of milk, and thus the risk of pathogens transfer appears to be modulated more by farm management than by the structure of the farm or the health status of the herd. Such a method, combined with the microbiological evaluation of the prevalence of faecal excretion of such pathogens, can be used to implement a risk-based surveillance programme and to apply targeted control measures.
    Research in Veterinary Science 02/2013; 95(1). DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.02.007 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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