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Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of bisphenol A in water samples

Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.26). 02/2009; 1216(9):1511-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.12.091
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detection was applied for the extraction and determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in water samples. An appropriate mixture of acetone (disperser solvent) and chloroform (extraction solvent) was injected rapidly into a water sample containing BPA. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Under the optimum conditions (extractant solvent: 142 microL of chloroform, disperser solvent: 2.0 mL of acetone, and without salt addition), the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5-100 microgL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.07 microgL(-1) for BPA. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for the extraction and determination of 100 microgL(-1) of BPA in the aqueous samples was 6.0%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amount of BPA in water samples and suitable results were obtained.

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    • "DLLME has attracted a considerable amount of attention due to its simplicity, short analysis time, and low consumption of organic solvents. This method has been successfully applied to the concentration of various families of organic and inorganic species (Naseri et al. 2008; Shamsipur and Ramezani 2008; Garcia-Lopez et al. 2007; Farina et al. 2007; Rezaee et al. 2009; Kozani et al. 2007; Rahnama Kozani et al. 2007) in water samples. "
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    ABSTRACT: A simple, rapid, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method, followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry was developed for the preconcentration and determination of Pd ions in water samples. Pd ions react with α-furildioxime (chelating agent) to form a hydrophobic complex. Various parameters were altered to study and optimize their effects on the extraction efficiency, such as pH, ligand concentration, the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time, and salt concentration. Under optimized conditions, the method exhibited an enrichment factor (C (org)/C (aq)) of 25 and recovery more than 98 % within a very short extraction time. The linearity of the method ranged from 10 to 200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection was 1.1 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation for the concentration of 100 μg L(-1) of Pd was 2.3 % (n = 10). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of Pd in tap, river, mineral, and sea water samples.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10661-012-3044-8 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "In DLLME, salt concentration often affects the extraction efficiency (Chang and Huang 2010; Fu et al. 2009; Li et al. 2008; Rezaee et al. 2009; Wu et al. 2010). In this study, different sodium chloride concentrations in the range of 0–20% (w/v) were investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: An analytical method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by liquid chromatography (LC)–fluorescence detection was developed to determine endocrine disruptors in environmental water samples. Four endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol were extracted and pre-concentrated by DLLME. Total analysis including extraction and LC analysis was achieved within 15 min. Extraction parameters such as types of extraction and dispersive solvents, volumes of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time, and NaCl concentration were optimized. Calibration curves for all EDCs were linear over a wide range with correlation coefficient (r 2) ≥ 0.9989. Intra- and inter-day precisions as relative standard deviations were less than 5.4 and 13.3%, respectively. Limit of detection ranged between 0.2 and 1.0 μg/L and limit of quantification ranged between 0.6 and 3.2 μg/L. The proposed method was applied to analysis of the EDCs in various samples including tap water and commercial bottled water and no EDCs were found in the tested samples.
    04/2012; 42(2). DOI:10.1007/s40005-012-0010-y
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    • "Simplicity of the operation, speed, low sample volume, low cost, high recovery, and high enhancement factor are some advantages of DLLME (Rezaee et al. 2006). The performance of DLLME was illustrated by extraction of different organic and inorganic compounds (Jiang et al. 2008; Liang et al. 2008; Shamsipur and Ramezani 2008; García-López et al. 2007; Rezaee et al. 2009; Nagaraju and Huang 2007; Shariati et al. 2011) from water samples. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered as green solvent and have been applied in many fields. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spectrophotometry in combination with ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied for the extraction and determination of formaldehyde in real samples. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with methyl acetoacetate in the presence of ammonia. The variation in the absorbance of the reaction product was measured at 375 nm. An appropriate mixture of ethanol (disperser solvent) and ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluoro-phosphate [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into a water sample containing formaldehyde. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by spectrophotometry. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-20 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.02 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.08 ng mL(-1) for formaldehyde. The relative standard deviation (RSD%, n = 5) for the extraction and determination of 0.8 ng mL(-1) of formaldehyde in the aqueous samples was 2.5%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive, and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents, and suitable results were obtained.
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