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Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection as a very simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of bisphenol A in water samples

Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.26). 02/2009; 1216(9):1511-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.12.091
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV detection was applied for the extraction and determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in water samples. An appropriate mixture of acetone (disperser solvent) and chloroform (extraction solvent) was injected rapidly into a water sample containing BPA. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Under the optimum conditions (extractant solvent: 142 microL of chloroform, disperser solvent: 2.0 mL of acetone, and without salt addition), the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5-100 microgL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.07 microgL(-1) for BPA. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for the extraction and determination of 100 microgL(-1) of BPA in the aqueous samples was 6.0%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amount of BPA in water samples and suitable results were obtained.

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    • "These results could be explained from several aspects. First, extraction efficiency increased due to the salting out effect, whereby water molecules from hydration spheres around the ionic salt molecules reduce the concentration of water available to dissolve the analyte molecules and then decrease the solubility of the target analyte in the aqueous phase (22), thus enhancing transfer of analyte into the organic phase. Secondly, decrease in the extraction efficiency is due to the increased viscosity of the solution, thus reducing the rate of diffusion of the target analyte into the extraction solvent (23). "
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    ABSTRACT: Novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been applied for the extraction and determination of cyproheptadine (CPH), an antihistamine, in human urine samples. In this method, 0.6 mL of acetonitrile (disperser solvent) containing 30 μL of carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected by a syringe into 5 mL urine sample. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase containing enriched analyte was dissolved in acetonitrile and an aliquot of this solution injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Development of DLLME procedure includes optimization of some important parameters such as kind and volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH and salt addition. The proposed method has good linearity in the range of 0.02-4.5 μg mL(-1) and low detection limit (13.1 ng mL(-1)). The repeatability of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation was 4.9% (n = 3). This method has also been applied to the analysis of real urine samples with satisfactory relative recoveries in the range of 91.6-101.0%.
    Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 02/2013; 12(2):311-8. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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    • "DLLME has attracted a considerable amount of attention due to its simplicity, short analysis time, and low consumption of organic solvents. This method has been successfully applied to the concentration of various families of organic and inorganic species (Naseri et al. 2008; Shamsipur and Ramezani 2008; Garcia-Lopez et al. 2007; Farina et al. 2007; Rezaee et al. 2009; Kozani et al. 2007; Rahnama Kozani et al. 2007) in water samples. "
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    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 12/2012; DOI:10.1007/s10661-012-3044-8 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "In DLLME, salt concentration often affects the extraction efficiency (Chang and Huang 2010; Fu et al. 2009; Li et al. 2008; Rezaee et al. 2009; Wu et al. 2010). In this study, different sodium chloride concentrations in the range of 0–20% (w/v) were investigated. "
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    ABSTRACT: An analytical method based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by liquid chromatography (LC)–fluorescence detection was developed to determine endocrine disruptors in environmental water samples. Four endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, and 4-nonylphenol were extracted and pre-concentrated by DLLME. Total analysis including extraction and LC analysis was achieved within 15 min. Extraction parameters such as types of extraction and dispersive solvents, volumes of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time, and NaCl concentration were optimized. Calibration curves for all EDCs were linear over a wide range with correlation coefficient (r 2) ≥ 0.9989. Intra- and inter-day precisions as relative standard deviations were less than 5.4 and 13.3%, respectively. Limit of detection ranged between 0.2 and 1.0 μg/L and limit of quantification ranged between 0.6 and 3.2 μg/L. The proposed method was applied to analysis of the EDCs in various samples including tap water and commercial bottled water and no EDCs were found in the tested samples.
    04/2012; 42(2). DOI:10.1007/s40005-012-0010-y
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