Addition and subtraction: A cognitive perspective

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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the structure and contents of EC301, a standardized testing battery for the evaluation of brain- damaged adults in the area of calculation and number processing. The battery was administered to 180 normal subjects stratified by education(3 levels), age (3) and gender. EC301 is composed of a large variety of tasks dealing with basic arithmetic skills, and their linguistic, spatial, and mnesic dimensions. The three main notational systems for numbers - Arabic digits, written verbal, and spoken verbal number forms - are explored. Analysis of error rates indicated the effect of some demographic factors (principally, education; incidentally, gender) on normal performance in some tasks.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 04/1994; 16(2):195-208. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Twenty 4th-grade children were matched according to performance on a whole-number calculation and concepts pretest and assigned at random to one of two groups: wooden,base-ten blocks and computerized microworld. Instruction in each group was designed to orient students toward relationships between notation and meaning. Instruction given the two groups was based upon a single script that extended whole number numeration to decimal numeration, and emphasized solving problems in concrete settings while inventing notational schemes to represent steps in solutions. Neither group changed in regard to whole-number notational methods. Blocks children understood decimal numerals as if they were funny whole numbers; Microworld children attempted to give meaning,to decimal notational methods, but were largely in a state of disequilibrium at the end of the study. Notations, Conventions, and Constraints 1 The use of concrete materials in elementary mathematics instruction has been widely advocated. Textbooks on methods for teaching elementary school mathematics and college textbooks on mathematics for elementary school teachers promote liberal use of concrete materials. Yet, the research literature on effectivenessof instruction involving uses of concrete materials is equivocal at best (Fennema, 1972; Labinowicz, 1985; Resnick, 1982; Resnick & Omanson, 1987; Sowell, 1989; Suydam & Higgins, 1977; Wearne & Hiebert,
    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 03/1992; 23(2). · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: History teachers are frequently urged to use primary sources in their classrooms. Yet little research exists to guide them, for history has been virtually ignored by researchers interested in cognition and instruction. The present study explored how people evaluate primary and secondary sources when considering questions of historical evidence. A group of working historians and high school seniors "thought aloud" as they reviewed a series of written and pictorial documents about the Battle of Lexington. Differences were found in how each group reasoned about historical evidence. It is suggested that these differences are due in part to beliefs that frame the act of historical inquiry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Educational Psychology 01/1991; 83(1):73. · 3.08 Impact Factor