Article

Comparison of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate's Composition with Portland Cements and a New Endodontic Cement

Department of Endodontics, Iranian Center for Endodontic Research, Dental Research Center, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University M.C., Tehran, Iran.
Journal of endodontics (Impact Factor: 2.79). 03/2009; 35(2):243-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.10.026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the compositions of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTAs), Portland cements (PCs), and a new endodontic cement (NEC). Our study also investigated the surface characteristics of MTA and NEC root-end fillings when immersed in normal saline. For part I, we prepared samples of 9 brands of MTAs, PCs, and NEC. The materials were imaged and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA). In part II, 3-mm-deep root-end preparations were filled with MTA or NEC and stored in normal saline for 1 week. Samples were imaged and analyzed by SEM and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). EDXA investigations revealed differences in the dominant compounds of NEC, PCs, and MTAs. The major components of MTA and PC are the same except for bismuth. The most significant difference was the presence of higher concentrations of Fe (minor element) in gray MTA and PC when compared with white ones. EPMA results revealed remarkably different elements in MTA compared with surrounding dentin, whereas in the NEC group the distribution patterns of calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen were comparable. NEC differs chemically from MTAs and PCs and demonstrates comparable surface composition with adjacent dentin as a root-end filling material.

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    ABSTRACT: AimTo evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo inflammatory response to new nanostructural materials based on active calcium silicate systems (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA-CS).MethodologyCytotoxicity of eluates of new nanostructural non-commercial materials CS and HA-CS, and MTA (White MTA, Angelus® Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, Brazil) as a control, were tested using the MTT assay on MRC-5 cells. Eluates of set materials were tested in 100% and 50% concentrations, 24h, 7 days and 21 days post-elution. The pH values were determined for undiluted eluates of set materials. Polyethylene tubes containing the test materials (CS, HA-CS, MTA) were implanted in subcutaneous tissue of Wistar rats. Histopathological examinations were conducted at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after the implantation. Data were statistically analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA Tukey's post-hoc test as well as Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test at α=0.05.ResultsAll materials significantly reduced cell viability; especially when undilluted eluates were used (p<0.001). After 24h elution cell viability was 10±1.8%, 49.5±4.2% and 61±7.4%, for MTA, CS and HA-CS, respectively. However, CS and HA-CS was significantly less toxic than the control material MTA (p<0.05). Cytotoxicity could be at least partially attributed to pH kinetics over time. Dilution of eluates of all tested materials resulted in better cell survival. Histopathological examination indicated similar inflammatory reaction, vascular congestion and connective tissue integrity associated with CS, HA-CS and MTA at each observation period (p>0.05). The only significant difference was found for capsule thickness, i.e. thicker capsule was associated with HA-CS compared to MTA at 60 days (p=0.0039). HA-CS induced moderately thick capsules (median score 3, score range 2-3) whereas MTA resulted in thin capsule formation (median score 2, score range 1-3).Conclusions Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory response indicated better biocompatibility of CS and HA-CS, in comparison with MTA (White MTA, Angelus® Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, Brazil).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Endodontic Journal 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/iej.12391 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    • "After Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, MTA became commercially available as grey MTA (GMTA) for the therapeutic endodontic use in humans (Peng et al. 2006). Because of the potential discolouration effect of GMTA, white-coloured formula of MTA (WMTA) was introduced and was more popular in incisor teeth (Asgary et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: This was to define and compare the in vitro toxicity of grey MTA with that of white MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts.
    European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 07/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.1007/s40368-014-0134-z
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    • "Despite various favorable properties, long setting time and difficult handling are the main disadvantages of MTA [1] [2]. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is one of the endodontic biomaterials, which is composed of various calcium ingredients, including its oxide, sulfate, phosphate, carbonate, silicate, hydroxide and chloride [7] [8] [9]. Clinical applications of CEM are similar to those of MTA and it has been reported that it has a shorter setting time compared to MTA [7] [8] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: One of the hypotheses regarding the calcification induction by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the involvement of transforming growth factor-Beta (TGF-β) super family. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is one of the endodontic biomaterials with clinical applications similar to MTA. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare the induction of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) by a combination of disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) and tooth colored ProRoot MTA (WMTA), to that of CEM cement and WMTA. Methods and Materials: Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were obtained from the attached gingiva of human premolars. HGFs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin, and streptomycin. Cells in groups 1, 2 and 3 were exposed to WMTA, CEM and WMTA+DSHP discs, respectively. The fourth group served as the control. After 72 h of exposure, HGF viability was determined by Mosmann's tetrazolium toxicity (MTT) assay. BMP-2 levels in cell-free culture media were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA, followed by the post hoc Games-Howell test for BMP-2 and post hoc Tukey's test for the results of MTT assay. Results: Cellular viability was significantly higher in group 3 compared to the other groups (P<0.05); however, CEM and WMTA did not exhibit significant differences (P=0.08). The control group exhibited significantly higher cellular viability in comparison to the other groups of the study (P<0.05). The highest and lowest protein production rates were observed in the WMTA (3167±274.46 pg/mL) and WMTA+DSHP (1796±839.49 pg/mL) groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the control, WMTA and CEM groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: WMTA and CEM did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of inducing BMP-2 production; however, incorporation of DSHP into WMTA resulted in a decrease in the induction of this protein.
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