Comparison of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate's Composition with Portland Cements and a New Endodontic Cement

Department of Endodontics, Iranian Center for Endodontic Research, Dental Research Center, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University M.C., Tehran, Iran.
Journal of endodontics (Impact Factor: 3.38). 03/2009; 35(2):243-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2008.10.026
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The aim of this study was to compare the compositions of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTAs), Portland cements (PCs), and a new endodontic cement (NEC). Our study also investigated the surface characteristics of MTA and NEC root-end fillings when immersed in normal saline. For part I, we prepared samples of 9 brands of MTAs, PCs, and NEC. The materials were imaged and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA). In part II, 3-mm-deep root-end preparations were filled with MTA or NEC and stored in normal saline for 1 week. Samples were imaged and analyzed by SEM and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). EDXA investigations revealed differences in the dominant compounds of NEC, PCs, and MTAs. The major components of MTA and PC are the same except for bismuth. The most significant difference was the presence of higher concentrations of Fe (minor element) in gray MTA and PC when compared with white ones. EPMA results revealed remarkably different elements in MTA compared with surrounding dentin, whereas in the NEC group the distribution patterns of calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen were comparable. NEC differs chemically from MTAs and PCs and demonstrates comparable surface composition with adjacent dentin as a root-end filling material.

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    • "Particle size affects cement hydration and consequently setting time and final quality of the cement. Smaller particles provide larger surface area available for hydration and speed up setting (Asgary et al. 2009). The nanostructure of "
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo inflammatory response to new nanostructural materials based on active calcium silicate systems (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA-CS).MethodologyCytotoxicity of eluates of new nanostructural non-commercial materials CS and HA-CS, and MTA (White MTA, Angelus® Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, Brazil) as a control, were tested using the MTT assay on MRC-5 cells. Eluates of set materials were tested in 100% and 50% concentrations, 24h, 7 days and 21 days post-elution. The pH values were determined for undiluted eluates of set materials. Polyethylene tubes containing the test materials (CS, HA-CS, MTA) were implanted in subcutaneous tissue of Wistar rats. Histopathological examinations were conducted at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after the implantation. Data were statistically analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA Tukey's post-hoc test as well as Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test at α=0.05.ResultsAll materials significantly reduced cell viability; especially when undilluted eluates were used (p<0.001). After 24h elution cell viability was 10±1.8%, 49.5±4.2% and 61±7.4%, for MTA, CS and HA-CS, respectively. However, CS and HA-CS was significantly less toxic than the control material MTA (p<0.05). Cytotoxicity could be at least partially attributed to pH kinetics over time. Dilution of eluates of all tested materials resulted in better cell survival. Histopathological examination indicated similar inflammatory reaction, vascular congestion and connective tissue integrity associated with CS, HA-CS and MTA at each observation period (p>0.05). The only significant difference was found for capsule thickness, i.e. thicker capsule was associated with HA-CS compared to MTA at 60 days (p=0.0039). HA-CS induced moderately thick capsules (median score 3, score range 2-3) whereas MTA resulted in thin capsule formation (median score 2, score range 1-3).Conclusions Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory response indicated better biocompatibility of CS and HA-CS, in comparison with MTA (White MTA, Angelus® Soluções Odontológicas, Londrina, Brazil).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Endodontic Journal 10/2014; 48(10). DOI:10.1111/iej.12391 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM cement, BioniqueDent, Tehran, Iran) consists of several calcium compounds, i.e. calcium oxide, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, calcium sulfate and calcium chloride.10 It has been reported to have good handling characteristics, and an ability to form hydroxyapatite in contact with tissue fluid.11 Mozayeni et al. and Ghoddosi et al. demonstrated that MTA and CEM had similar favorable biologic responses when cocultured with L929 fibroblasts.12,13 "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements at different storage times after mixing. Materials and Methods Capillary tubes were filled with Biodentine (Septodont), Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM cement, BioniqueDent), Tech Biosealer Endo (Tech Biosealer) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Empty tubes and tubes containing Dycal were used as negative and positive control groups respectively. Filled capillary tubes were kept in 0.2 mL microtubes and incubated at 37℃. Each material was divided into 3 groups for testing at intervals of 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day after mixing. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cocultered with 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day samples of different materials for 24 and 48 hr. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Results In all groups, the viability of monocytes significantly improved with increasing storage time regardless of the incubation time (p < 0.001). After 24 hr of incubation, there was no significant difference between the materials regarding monocyte viability. However, at 48 hr of incubation, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were less cytotoxic than CEM cement and Biosealer (p < 0.01). Conclusions Biodentine and ProRoot MTA had similar biocompatibility. Mixing ProRoot MTA with PBS in place of distilled water had no effect on its biocompatibility. Biosealer and CEM cement after 48 hr of incubation were significantly more cytotoxic to on monocyte cells compared to ProRoot MTA and Biodentine.
    08/2014; 39(3):149-54. DOI:10.5395/rde.2014.39.3.149
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    • "After Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, MTA became commercially available as grey MTA (GMTA) for the therapeutic endodontic use in humans (Peng et al. 2006). Because of the potential discolouration effect of GMTA, white-coloured formula of MTA (WMTA) was introduced and was more popular in incisor teeth (Asgary et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim This was to define and compare the in vitro toxicity of grey MTA with that of white MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. Methods PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium. Cultures were subjected to different concentrations of grey and white MTA (0.5, 5, 50 and 500 µg/ml) for 24 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to grey or white MTA served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. Statistics The results were compared using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (p < 0.05). Results White MTA presented higher in vitro toxicity than grey MTA. However, the differences were almost insignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Both colours of MTA are biocompatible since they were both able to preserve PDL fibroblasts for up to 24 h. MTA is as a promising alternative in pulpotomy of primary teeth.
    European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 07/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.1007/s40368-014-0134-z
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