Bioavailability of Anthocyanins from Purple Carrot Juice: Effects of Acylation and Plant Matrix

Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 3.11). 02/2009; 57(4):1226-30. DOI: 10.1021/jf802988s
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Absorption of cyanidin-based anthocyanins is not fully understood with respect to dose or anthocyanin structure. In feeding studies using whole foods, nonacylated anthocyanins are more bioavailable than their acylated counterparts, but the extent to which plant matrix determines relative bioavailability of anthocyanins is unknown. Using juice of purple carrots to circumvent matrix effects, a feeding trial was conducted to determine relative bioavailability of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins and to assess dose-response effects. Appearance of anthocyanins in plasma was measured in 10 healthy adults for 8 h following consumption of purple carrot juice. Each subject consumed 50, 150, and 250 mL of juice containing 76 micromol (65 mg), 228 micromol (194 mg), and 380 micromol (323 mg) of total anthocyanins, respectively. Acylated anthocyanins comprised 76% of total anthocyanins in the juice, yet their bioavailability was found to be significantly less than that of nonacylated anthocyanins. Peak plasma concentrations of nonacylated anthocyanins were 4-fold higher than that for acylated anthocyanins. Absorption efficiency declined across the doses administered. Because the treatments were consumed as juice, it could be discerned that the difference in bioavailability of acylated versus nonacylated anthocyanins was not primarily caused by interactions with the plant matrix.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is increasing interest in food use of black carrots because of the colour stability of the anthocyanins and the substantial quantity of bioactive compounds. The influence of jam and marmalade processing, storage conditions and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on colour attributes, total and individual anthocyanin content, and antioxidant capacity of black carrots was examined. Anthocyanins (87.6–95.6%) and antioxidant capacity (79.2–89.5%) were significantly decreased as a result of jam and marmalade processing (p < 0.05). After 20 weeks of storage, the preserved anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in samples stored at 4 °C (53.4–81.0% and 45.2–92.0%, respectively) were higher than samples stored at 25 °C (7.8–69.3% and 12.8–60.9%, respectively). Additionally percent recovery of bioaccessible anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity determined using the FRAP assay increased after jam and marmalade processing (0.8–10.3 and 2.6–4.3%, respectively). The current study introduced a detailed understanding of the alterations in colour properties, anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of black carrot jams and marmalades, which can serve as novel sources of functional foods.
    Journal of Functional Foods 03/2015; 13. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.021 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anthocyanins are a subgroup of flavonoids responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many fruits, flowers, and leaves. Consumption of foods rich in anthocyanins has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The fate of anthocyanins after oral administration follows a unique pattern rather different from those of other flavonoids. Anthocyanins could be absorbed from the stomach as well as intestines. Active transporters may play a role in the absorption of anthocyanins from the stomach as well as in their transfer within the kidney or liver. Anthocyanins such as cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside could be absorbed in their intact form into the gastrointestinal wall; undergo extensive first-pass metabolism; and enter the systemic circulation as metabolites. Phenolic acid metabolites were found in the blood stream in much higher concentrations than their parent compounds. These metabolites could be responsible for the health benefits associated with anthocyanins. Some anthocyanins can reach the large intestine in significant amounts and undergo decomposition catalyzed by microbiota. In turn, these decomposition products may contribute to the health effects associated with anthocyanins in the large intestine. This review comprehensively summarizes the existing knowledge about absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of anthocyanins as well as their decomposition within the gastrointestinal lumen.
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 10/2014; 46(4). DOI:10.3109/03602532.2014.978080 · 6.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carrot, a biennial herb of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important vegetable crops in the world. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4α, PP2A, SAND, TIP41, UBQ, EF-1α, and TUB) were cloned from carrot. Carrot plants were subjected to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli (gibberellin, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid). The expression profiles of the candidate reference genes were evaluated in three technical and biological replicates. Real-time qPCR data analyses were performed using three commonly used Excel-based applets namely, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. ACTIN and TUB were the most stable genes identified among all sample groups, but individual analysis revealed changes in their expression profiles. GAPDH displayed the maximum stability for most of single stresses. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression profile of DcDREB-A1 gene (homolog of AtDREB-A1 gene of Arabidophsis) was studied in carrot. The appropriate reference genes were selected that showed stable expression under the different experimental conditions.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117569. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117569 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014