The Role of Corporate Governance in Initial Public Offerings: Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trusts
ABSTRACT This study analyzes the impact of corporate governance structures at the initial public offering (IPO) date. We test hypotheses that firms with more shareholder-oriented governance structures receive higher valuations at the IPO stage and have better long-term performance. Our sample is a set of 107 IPOs of real estate investment trusts (REITs) between 1991 and 1998. Using a single industry and REITs in particular reduces potentially confounding effects due to differences in risk, transparency, and growth potential. We believe this-combined with our use of IPOs-mitigates the endogeneity problem present in studies of the impact of governance on seasoned firms' valuation. Our analysis indicates that firms with stronger governance structures have higher IPO valuations and better long-term operating performance than their peers. (c) 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved..
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ABSTRACT: Real estate has been at the forefront of the financial crisis, with the intransparency of securitized products, such as MBS, CMBS, and CDOs, playing a critical role. Real estate equity investments have received less attention during the crisis. Listed property companies (REITs) offer an interesting perspective on the behavior of institutional investors in the real estate equity market. In this paper, we study the influence of the recent crisis on the relation between corporate governance and the performance of listed property companies in the U.S. We first investigate the effect of corporate governance structures on abnormal stock returns during the pre-crisis period, and then address the effects of the financial crisis on this relationship, during the recent period of economic distress. We find that firm-level corporate governance did not influence performance of real estate equity investments before the crisis, but the structure of corporate governance has become an important performance driver of real estate equity investments during and after the market downturn. One of the interpretations is that institutional investors have just started to recognize the importance of transparency in real estate equity investments during the recent crisis, which is fully consistent with the herd investments in securitized debt products, where opacity of the investments was so blissfully ignored.
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ABSTRACT: The unique regulatory environment of REITs casts doubt on the traditional theoretical process by which REIT managers base their convertible debt issuance decisions on issuer condition and prospects. Anecdotal evidence shows that REITs may have catered to demand by investors, including a demand by convertible bond arbitrageurs when issuing convertible debt. This study examines the rationale behind convertible debt issuances by REITs, focusing on the possible impacts of investor demand and market timing. The results suggest that investor demand significantly affects convertible debt issuance decisions by REITs while certain unknown factors appear to have contributed to the sudden increase of convertible debt offerings in 2006 and 2007. REITs also time the market to conditions in the public debt market. The results only partially support the offered risk-shifting, risk-uncertainty, backdoor-equity, and sequential-financing hypotheses.The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 08/2013; 49(4). DOI:10.1007/s11146-013-9443-y · 0.88 Impact Factor