Relationship between serum adipocytokine levels and metabolic syndrome in menopausal women
ABSTRACT Adipocytokines are bioactive substances derived from adipose tissues, especially visceral fat, and play a crucial role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aims of this study were to estimate serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin and TNF-alpha) and to examine the associations between adipocytokine levels and metabolic syndrome in menopausal women.
We recruited 28 postmenopausal women with features of metabolic syndrome. For the purpose of comparing adipocytokine levels, 30 postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome were recruited by matching age and body mass index (BMI). Serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, TNF-alpha) were then determined, and any potential correlations between adipocytokine levels and metabolic syndrome were investigated.
There were no significant differences in adiponectin or resistin levels in women with metabolic syndrome when compared with the control group. Conversely, TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that TNF-alpha was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome.
Our results suggest that, among the adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin and TNF-alpha), serum TNF-alpha levels may serve as a useful biomarker for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in menopausal women.
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ABSTRACT: Both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion have been shown to predict the development of NIDDM. However, methods to assess insulin sensitivity and secretion are complicated and expensive to apply in epidemiological studies. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) has been suggested as a method to assess insulin resistance and secretion from the fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. However, this method has not been extensively evaluated, particularly in different ethnic groups. We applied the HOMA model to cross-sectional analyses of the San Antonio Heart Study (n = 2,465). HOMA insulin resistance (IR) was very strongly correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.98) and HOMA beta-cell function (beta-cell) was moderately correlated with the 30-min increment in insulin concentration over the 30-min increment in glucose concentration (delta I30/delta G30) in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (r = 0.44). NIDDM was characterized by both high HOMA IR and low HOMA beta-cell function. In Mexican-Americans, HOMA IR in NIDDM subjects was 9.5 compared with 2.7 in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects. In contrast, HOMA beta-cell function showed only small differences in Mexican-Americans (176 NIDDM; 257 NGT). However, the delta I30/delta G30 (pmol/mmol) showed much larger differences (75 NIDDM; 268 NGT). When modeled separately, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was characterized by high HOMA IR and high HOMA beta-cell function. However, when analyzed in the same regression model, high HOMA IR and low HOMA beta-cell function characterized subjects with IGT. These results were similar in both ethnic groups. Mexican-Americans had increased insulin resistance (as judged by both HOMA IR and fasting insulin) and insulin secretion (by HOMA beta-cell and delta I30/delta G30) relative to non-Hispanic whites. We conclude that HOMA provides a useful model to assess insulin resistance and beta-cell function in epidemiological studies in which only fasting samples are available and that, further, it is critical to take into account the degree of insulin resistance in assessing insulin secretion by the HOMA model.Diabetes Care 08/1997; 20(7):1087-92. DOI:10.2337/diacare.20.7.1087 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammation and insulin resistance may play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases for which migrant Asian Indians are at particularly high risk. We examined relationships between markers of insulin resistance and inflammation, resting energy expenditure (REE), and body composition. Measurements were made of total and regional body composition, including regional fat mass (FM) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), REE by indirect calorimetry and fasting interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, glucose and insulin, in 79 healthy Asian Indians (38F, 41M; age 30-49 years) from urban Auckland, New Zealand. Beta-cell function (HOMA B%) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA S%) were derived using homeostatic model assessment. Men had a more central distribution of body fat than women. REE was strongly correlated with IL-6 concentrations in men but not in women. In both sexes, IL-6 was associated positively with percentage body fat and HOMA B% and inversely with ASMM and HOMA S%. Insulin increased and HOMA S% decreased with increasing waist-to-hip ratio and abdominal-to-thigh fat ratio in men but not in women. TNF-alpha was not significantly associated with any of the variables examined. Relationships between body fat distribution and HOMA S% were strongly sex dependent and may indicate a greater propensity for development of the metabolic syndrome among male Asian Indians than females in the age group examined.Clinical Endocrinology 06/2007; 66(5):684-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02801.x · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We isolated the human adipose-specific and most abundant gene transcript, apM1 (Maeda, K., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221, 286-289, 1996). The apM1 gene product was a kind of soluble matrix protein, which we named adiponectin. To quantitate the plasma adiponectin concentration, we have produced monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for human adiponectin and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. Adiponectin was abundantly present in the plasma of healthy volunteers in the range from 1.9 to 17.0 mg/ml. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects, although adiponectin is secreted only from adipose tissue. The ELISA system developed in this study will be useful for elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role of adiponectin in humans.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/1999; 257(1):79-83. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.1999.0255 · 2.30 Impact Factor