Advances in the diagnosis and management of Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia

Institute of Child Health, University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Services Trust, London, UK.
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology &#38 Metabolism (Impact Factor: 7.55). 03/2009; 5(2):101-12. DOI: 10.1038/ncpendmet1046
Source: PubMed


Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH) is a consequence of unregulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells and is a major cause of hypoglycemic brain injury and mental retardation. Congenital HH is caused by mutations in genes involved in regulation of insulin secretion, seven of which have been identified (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, CGK, HADH, SLC16A1 and HNF4A). Severe forms of congenital HH are caused by mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11, which encode the two components of the pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Mutations in HNF4A, GLUD1, CGK, and HADH lead to transient or persistent HH, whereas mutations in SLC16A1 cause exercise-induced HH. Rapid genetic analysis combined with an understanding of the histological features (focal or diffuse disease) of congenital HH and the introduction of (18)F-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine PET-CT to guide laparoscopic surgery have totally transformed the clinical approach to this complex disease. Adult-onset HH is mostly caused by an insulinoma; however, it has also been reported to present as postprandial HH in patients with noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, in those who have undergone gastric-bypass surgery for morbid obesity, and in those with mutations in the insulin-receptor gene.

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Available from: Chela Tandiwe James, May 23, 2014
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    • "With dietary modifications and supplementation of standard micronutrients and minerals , most patients adapt and benefit from these changes after RYGB; as exemplified by the low rates of nutritional complications [4] and the outstanding remission and as well as prevention rates of type 2 diabetes that are observed after RYGB [5] [6]. However, these anatomic changes may lead to uncommon and challenging treatment complications , such as hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with or without hypoglycemia unawareness [7] [8] and recalcitrant hypocalcemia related to hypoparathyroidism and inadvertent parathyroidectomy [9] [10]. The etiology of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia remains controversial, and best treatment recommendations for these conditions are unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is biochemically characterised by the dysregulated secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells. It is a major cause of persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) in the newborn and infancy period. Genetically CHI is a heterogeneous condition with mutations in seven different genes described. The genetic basis of CHI involves defects in key genes which regulate insulin secretion from beta-cells. Recessive inactivating mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11 (which encode the two subunits of the adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium channels (ATP sensitive K(ATP) channels)) in beta-cells are the most common cause of CHI. The other recessive form of CHI is due to mutations in HADH (encoding for-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase). Dominant forms of CHI are due to inactivating mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11, and activating mutations in GLUD1 (encoding glutamate dehydrogenase) and GCK (encoding glucokinase). Recently dominant mutations in HNF4A (encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and SLC16A1 (encoding monocarboxylate transporter 1) have been described which lead to HH. Mutations in all these genes account for about 50% of the known causes of CHI. Histologically there are three (possibly others which have not been characterised yet) major subtypes of CHI: diffuse, focal and atypical forms. The diffuse form is inherited in an autosomal recessive (or dominant manner), the focal form being sporadic in inheritance. The diffuse form of the disease may require a near total pancreatectomy whereas the focal form requires a limited pancreatectomy potentially curing the patient. Understanding the genetic basis of CHI has not only provided novel insights into beta-cell physiology but also aided in patient management and genetic counselling.
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