Molecular mechanisms of proteasome assembly.
ABSTRACT The 26S proteasome is a highly conserved protein degradation machine that consists of the 20S proteasome and 19S regulatory particles, which include 14 and 19 different polypeptides, respectively. How the proteasome components are assembled is a fundamental question towards understanding the process of protein degradation and its functions in diverse biological processes. Several proteasome-dedicated chaperones are involved in the efficient and correct assembly of the 20S proteasome. These chaperones help the initiation and progression of the assembly process by transiently associating with proteasome precursors. By contrast, little is known about the assembly of the 19S regulatory particles, but several hints have emerged.
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ABSTRACT: The proteasome is essential for the selective degradation of most cellular proteins. To survive overwhelming demands on the proteasome arising during environmental stresses, cells increase proteasome abundance. Proteasome assembly is known to be complex. How stressed cells overcome this vital challenge is unknown. In an unbiased suppressor screen aimed at rescuing the defects of a yeast Rpt6 thermosensitive proteasome mutant, we identified a protein, hereafter named Adc17, as it functions as an ATPase dedicated chaperone. Adc17 interacts with the amino terminus of Rpt6 to assist formation of the Rpt6-Rpt3 ATPase pair, an early step in proteasome assembly. Adc17 is important for cell fitness, and its absence aggravates proteasome defects. The abundance of Adc17 increases upon proteasome stresses, and its function is crucial to maintain homeostatic proteasome levels. Thus, cells have mechanisms to adjust proteasome assembly when demands increase, and Adc17 is a critical effector of this process.Molecular Cell 08/2014; 55(4). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.06.017 · 14.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy were long viewed as independent, parallel degradation systems with no point of intersection. By now we know that these degradation pathways share certain substrates and regulatory molecules and show coordinated and compensatory function. Two ubiquitin-like protein conjugation pathways were discovered that are required for autophagosome biogenesis: the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 and Atg8 systems. Autophagy has been considered to be essentially a nonselective process, but it turned out to be at least partially selective. Selective substrates of autophagy include damaged mitochondria, intracellular pathogens, and even a subset of cytosolic proteins with the help of ubiquitin-binding autophagic adaptors, such as p62/SQSTM1, NBR1, NDP52, and Optineurin. These proteins selectively recognize autophagic cargo and mediate its engulfment into autophagosomes by binding to the small ubiquitin-like modifiers that belong to the Atg8/LC3 family.BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:832704. DOI:10.1155/2014/832704 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In developmental and evolutionary biology, particular emphasis has been given to the relationship between transcription factors and the cognate cis-regulatory elements of their target genes. These constitute the gene regulatory networks that control expression and are assumed to causally determine the formation of structures and body plans. Comparative analysis has, however, established a broad sequence homology among species that nonetheless display quite different anatomies. Transgenic experiments have also confirmed that many developmentally important elements are, in fact, functionally interchangeable. Although dependent upon the appropriate degree of gene expression, the actual construction of specific structures appears not directly linked to the functions of gene products alone. Instead, the self-formation of complex patterns, due in large part to epigenetic and non-genetic determinants, remains a persisting theme in the study of ontogeny and regenerative medicine. Recent evidence indeed points to the existence of a self-organizing process, operating through a set of intrinsic rules and forces, which imposes coordination and a holistic order upon cells and tissue. This has been repeatedly demonstrated in experiments on regeneration as well as in the autonomous formation of structures in vitro. The process cannot be wholly attributed to the functional outcome of protein-protein interactions or to concentration gradients of diffusible chemicals. This phenomenon is examined here along with some of the methodological and theoretical approaches that are now used in understanding the causal basis for self-organization in development and its evolution.Theory in Biosciences 04/2014; 133(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s12064-014-0200-4 · 1.08 Impact Factor