Assessment of microvascular obstruction and prediction of short-term remodeling after acute myocardial infarction: cardiac MR imaging study.
ABSTRACT To evaluate which cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique for detection of microvascular obstruction (MVO) best predicts left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI).
This study had local ethics committee approval; all patients gave written informed consent. Sixty-three patients with first acute MI, treated with primary stent placement and optimal medical therapy, underwent cine MR imaging at 4-7 days and at 4 months after MI. Presence of MVO was qualitatively evaluated at baseline by using three techniques: (a) a single-shot saturation-recovery gradient-echo first-pass perfusion sequence (early hypoenhancement), mean time, 1.09 minutes +/- 0.07 (standard deviation) after contrast material administration; (b) a three-dimensional segmented saturation-recovery gradient-echo sequence (intermediate hypoenhancement), mean time, 2.17 minutes +/- 0.26; and (c) a two-dimensional segmented inversion-recovery gradient-echo late gadolinium enhancement sequence (late hypoenhancement), mean time, 13.32 minutes +/- 1.26. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated from the signal-to-noise ratios of the infarcted myocardium and MVO areas. Univariable linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictive value of each MR imaging technique.
Early hypoenhancement was detected in 44 (70%) of 63 patients; intermediate hypoenhancement, in 39 (62%); and late hypoenhancement, in 37 (59%). Late hypoenhancement was the strongest predictor of change in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes over time (beta = 14.3, r = 0.40, P = .001 and beta = 11.3, r = 0.44, P < .001, respectively), whereas intermediate and late hypoenhancement had comparable predictive values of change in LV ejection fraction (beta = -3.1, r = -0.29, P = .02 and beta = -2.8, r = -0.27, P = .04, respectively). CNR corrected for spatial resolution was significantly superior for late enhancement compared with the other sequences (P < .001).
By using cardiac MR imaging, late hypoenhancement is the best prognostic marker of LV remodeling, with highest CNR between the infarcted myocardium and MVO regions.