Lymph node ratio as an alternative to pN staging in node-positive breast cancer.
ABSTRACT In the current pTNM classification system, nodal status of breast cancer is based on the number of involved lymph nodes and does not account for the total number of lymph nodes removed. In this study, we assessed the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR; ie, ratio of positive over excised lymph nodes) as compared with pN staging and determined its optimal cutoff points.
From the Geneva Cancer Registry, we identified all women diagnosed with node-positive breast cancer between 1980 and 2004 (n = 1,829). The prognostic value of LNRs was calculated for values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. Based on maximum likelihood, we identified cutoff points classifying women into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk LNR groups.
Optimal cutoff points classified patients into low- (< or = 0.20), intermediate- (> 0.20 and < or = 0.65), and high-risk (> 0.65) LNR groups, corresponding to 10-year disease-specific survival rates of 75%, 63%, and 40%, and adjusted mortality risks of 1 (reference), 1.78 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.18), and 3.21 (95% CI, 2.54 to 4.06), respectively. In contrast to LNR risk categories, survival curves of pN2 and pN3 crossed after 15 years, and their adjusted mortality risks showed overlapping CIs: 2.07 (95% CI, 1.69 to 2.53) and 2.84 (95% CI, 2.23 to 3.61), respectively.
LNR predicts survival after breast cancer more accurately than pN classification and should be considered as an alternative to pN staging.
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ABSTRACT: Nodal ratio (NR) is defined as the number of involved nodes to the number of nodes examined. There is limited information on the application of NR on population data. Previous reports in breast cancer generally analyzed one to three positive axillary nodes as a single group. This study investigates whether one to three positive axillary nodes is a homogeneous group in prognosis by comparing one to two positive nodes to three positive nodes. The population‐based registry of a Canadian province from 1981 through 1995 was searched. As the reliability of nodal assessment depends on the number of nodes sampled, we also studied the subgroup of patients with greater than or equal to eight nodes dissected. Of a total of 5,996 breast cancer patients, 1187 had one to three positive axillary nodes. The 263 patients with three positive nodes compared to the 924 patients with one to two nodes fared worse with a significantly reduced cause‐specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). Patients with one to two positive nodes had similar CSS (p = 0.31) and OS (p = 0.63). Among those with greater than or equal to eight nodes dissected, there were 677 patients with one to two positive nodes. CSS and OS were not significantly different between one versus two positive nodes (p = 0.16 and 0.34, respectively), but with NR, the corresponding p values were 0.0068 and 0.08, respectively. The cutoff value of NR 0.15 was found to be most useful and confirmed by the validation dataset. NR is able to segregate patients better than the absolute number of positive nodes used in the current staging system. NR should be incorporated into the staging system.The Breast Journal 11/2012; 18(6). · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With regard to pathologic stage IIA (pIIA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is a paucity of literature evaluating the risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of DFS and OS in patients with NSCLC pIIA.We performed a retrospective review of 98 stage II patients (7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer) who underwent lung resection from January 2005 to February 2011. Of these, 23 patients were excluded for this study because of loss of follow-up or different substage, and 75 patients with pIIA were included for further univariate and multivariate analysis. Risk factors for DFS and OS were analyzed, including age, gender, smoking history, operation method, histology, differential grade, visceral pleural invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, and metastatic N1 lymph node ratio (LNR).Of the 75 patients with pIIA NSCLC who were examined, 29 were female and 46 were male, with a mean age of 61.8 years (range: 34-83 years). The average tumor size was 3.188 cm (range: 1.10-6.0 cm). Under univariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were risk factors for DFS (P = 0.011, P = 0.007). Under multivariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were all independent risk factors for DFS, while adjuvant chemotherapy and higher metastatic N1 LNR were independent prognostic factors for OS.For patients with pIIA, higher metastatic N1 LNR and angiolymphatic invasion were related to poor DFS. In addition to DFS, higher metastatic N1 LNR was also a poor prognostic factor for OS rates and adjuvant therapy effectiveness. Clinical physicians should devise different postsurgical follow-up programs depending on these factors, especially for patients with high risk.Medicine 10/2014; 93(20):e102. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background This study was conducted to assess the prognostic value of the number of negative lymph nodes (NLNs) in breast cancer patients with four or more positive lymph nodes after postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT).Methods This retrospective study examined 605 breast cancer patients with four or more positive lymph nodes who underwent mastectomy. A total of 371 patients underwent PMRT. The prognostic value of the NLN count in patients with and without PMRT was analyzed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors.ResultsThe median follow-up was 54 months, and the overall 8-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 79.8%, 50.0%, 46.8%, and 57.9%, respectively. The optimal cut-off points for NLN count was 12. Univariate analysis showed that the number of NLNs, lymph node ratio (LNR) and pN stage predicted the LRFS of non-PMRT patients (p¿<¿0.05 for all). Multivariate analysis showed that the number of NLNs was an independent prognostic factor affecting the LRFS, patients with a higher number of NLNs had a better LRFS (hazard ratio¿=¿0.132, 95% confidence interval¿=¿0.032-0.547, p =0.005). LNR and pN stage had no effect on LRFS. PMRT improved the LRFS (p¿<¿0.001), DMFS (p¿=¿0.018), DFS (p¿=¿0.001), and OS (p¿=¿0.008) of patients with 12 or fewer NLNs, but it did not any effect on survival of patients with more than 12 NLNs. PMRT improved the regional lymph node recurrence-free survival (p¿<¿0.001) but not the chest wall recurrence-free survival (p¿=¿0.221) in patients with 12 or fewer NLNs.Conclusions The number of NLNs can predict the survival of breast cancer patients with four or more positive lymph nodes after PMRT.Radiation Oncology 12/2014; 9(1):284. · 2.36 Impact Factor