Lymph Node Ratio as an Alternative to pN Staging in Node-Positive Breast Cancer
ABSTRACT In the current pTNM classification system, nodal status of breast cancer is based on the number of involved lymph nodes and does not account for the total number of lymph nodes removed. In this study, we assessed the prognostic value of the lymph node ratio (LNR; ie, ratio of positive over excised lymph nodes) as compared with pN staging and determined its optimal cutoff points.
From the Geneva Cancer Registry, we identified all women diagnosed with node-positive breast cancer between 1980 and 2004 (n = 1,829). The prognostic value of LNRs was calculated for values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 by Cox regression analysis and validated by bootstrapping. Based on maximum likelihood, we identified cutoff points classifying women into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk LNR groups.
Optimal cutoff points classified patients into low- (< or = 0.20), intermediate- (> 0.20 and < or = 0.65), and high-risk (> 0.65) LNR groups, corresponding to 10-year disease-specific survival rates of 75%, 63%, and 40%, and adjusted mortality risks of 1 (reference), 1.78 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.18), and 3.21 (95% CI, 2.54 to 4.06), respectively. In contrast to LNR risk categories, survival curves of pN2 and pN3 crossed after 15 years, and their adjusted mortality risks showed overlapping CIs: 2.07 (95% CI, 1.69 to 2.53) and 2.84 (95% CI, 2.23 to 3.61), respectively.
LNR predicts survival after breast cancer more accurately than pN classification and should be considered as an alternative to pN staging.
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ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (QoL) has been validated as a prognostic factor for cancer patients; however, to be used in routine practice, QoL scores must be dichotomized. Cutoff points are usually based on arbitrary percentile values. We aimed to identify optimal cutoff points for six QoL scales and to quantify their added utility in the performance of four prognostic classifications in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We reanalyzed data of 271 patients with advanced HCC recruited between July 2002 and October 2003 from 79 institutions in France in the CHOC trial, designed to assess the efficacy of long-acting octreotide. QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30). The scores ranged from 0 to 100. Identification of optimal cutoff points was based on the method of Faraggi and Simon [Stat Med 1996;15:2203-2213]. Improvement in the performance of prognostic classifications was studied with Harrell's C-index, the net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). We found that optimal cutoff points were 50 for global health, 58.33 for physical functioning, 66.67 for role functioning, 66.67 for fatigue, 0 for dyspnea, and 33.33 for diarrhea. The addition of QoL and clinical factors improved the performance of all four prognostic classifications, with improvement in the range of 0.02-0.09 for the C-index, 0.24-0.78 for 3-month NRI, and 0.02-0.10 for IDI. These cutoff values for QoL scales can be useful to identify HCC patients with very poor prognosis and thus improve design of clinical trials and treatment adjustment for these patients. ©AlphaMed Press.The Oncologist 12/2014; 20(1). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0175 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background This study was conducted to assess the prognostic value of the number of negative lymph nodes (NLNs) in breast cancer patients with four or more positive lymph nodes after postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT).Methods This retrospective study examined 605 breast cancer patients with four or more positive lymph nodes who underwent mastectomy. A total of 371 patients underwent PMRT. The prognostic value of the NLN count in patients with and without PMRT was analyzed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors.ResultsThe median follow-up was 54 months, and the overall 8-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 79.8%, 50.0%, 46.8%, and 57.9%, respectively. The optimal cut-off points for NLN count was 12. Univariate analysis showed that the number of NLNs, lymph node ratio (LNR) and pN stage predicted the LRFS of non-PMRT patients (p¿<¿0.05 for all). Multivariate analysis showed that the number of NLNs was an independent prognostic factor affecting the LRFS, patients with a higher number of NLNs had a better LRFS (hazard ratio¿=¿0.132, 95% confidence interval¿=¿0.032-0.547, p =0.005). LNR and pN stage had no effect on LRFS. PMRT improved the LRFS (p¿<¿0.001), DMFS (p¿=¿0.018), DFS (p¿=¿0.001), and OS (p¿=¿0.008) of patients with 12 or fewer NLNs, but it did not any effect on survival of patients with more than 12 NLNs. PMRT improved the regional lymph node recurrence-free survival (p¿<¿0.001) but not the chest wall recurrence-free survival (p¿=¿0.221) in patients with 12 or fewer NLNs.Conclusions The number of NLNs can predict the survival of breast cancer patients with four or more positive lymph nodes after PMRT.Radiation Oncology 12/2014; 9(1):284. DOI:10.1186/s13014-014-0284-5 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic value of metastatic lymph node ratio (MLNR) in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) patients undergoing radical resection. Seventy-eight patients with ECC were enrolled. Associations between various clinicopathologic factors and prognosis were investigated by Kaplan-Meier analyses. The Cox proportional-hazards model was used for multivariate survival analysis. The overall three- and five-year survival rates were 47.26% and 23.99%, respectively. MLNR of 0, 0-0.2, 0.2-0.5, and > 0.5 corresponded to five-year survival rates of 28.59%, 21.60%, 18.84%, and 10.03%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that degree of tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, MLNR, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, and margin status were closely associated with postoperative survival in ECC patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that MLNR and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors after pancreaticoduodenectomy (HR = 2.13, 95%CI: 1.45-3.11; P < 0.01; and HR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.17-3.31; P = 0.01, respectively). The median survival time for MLNR > 0.5, 0.2-0.5, 0-0.2, and 0 was 15 mo, 24 mo, 23 mo, and 35.5 mo, respectively. There were statistical differences in survival time between patients with different MLNR (χ(2) = 15.38; P < 0.01). MLNR is an independent prognostic factor for ECC patients after radical resection and is useful for predicting postoperative survival.04/2015; 21(14):4255-60. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4255