TLR7 and TLR8 agonists trigger different signaling pathways for human dendritic cell maturation.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity. These APCs have the ability to recognize specific molecular signatures of pathogens through TLRs. In particular, the intracellular TLR7 and TLR8, mediating the recognition of ssRNA by DCs, play a major role in the immune response during viral infection. Although differences have been identified between TLR7 and TLR8, in terms of cellular expression and functions, the signaling pathways that lead to DC maturation following TLR7 or TLR8 engagement are largely unknown. We compared the signaling pathways involved in human CD34-DC maturation induced by agonists selective for TLR7 (imiquimod) or TLR8 (3M002). TLR7 and TLR8 activation up-regulated CCR7, CD40, CD86, and CD83 expression and IL-6 and IL-12p40 production. However, only TLR8 activation led to IL-12p70 production and il-12p35 mRNA expression. We found that upon TLR7 and TLR8 activation, JNK and NF-kappaB positively regulated the expression of CCR7, CD86, CD83, and CD40 and the production of IL-6 and IL-12p40. However, although p38MAPK participated in the up-regulation of maturation markers in response to TLR7 activation, this kinase exerted an inhibitory effect on CD40 expression and IL-12 production in TLR8-stimulated DCs. We also showed that the Jak/STAT signaling pathway was involved in CD40 expression and cytokine production in TLR7-stimulated DCs but negatively regulated CD83 expression and cytokine secretion in DCs activated through TLR8. This study showed that TLR7 and TLR8 activate similar signaling pathways that play different roles in DC maturation, depending on which TLR is triggered.
Article: Sex differences in the response to viral infections: TLR8 and TLR9 ligand stimulation induce higher IL10 production in males.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to viral infections as well as their severity are higher in men than in women. Heightened antiviral responses typical of women are effective for rapid virus clearance, but if excessively high or prolonged, can result in chronic/inflammatory pathologies. We investigated whether this variability could be in part attributable to differences in the response to the Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) more involved in the virus recognition. Cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from male and female healthy donors after stimulation with Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3, 7, 8, 9 ligands or with viruses (influenza and Herpes-simplex-1) was evaluated. Compared to females, PBMCs from males produced not only lower amounts of IFN-α in response to TLR7 ligands but also higher amounts of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 after stimulation with TLR8 and TLR9 ligands or viruses. IL10 production after TLR9 ligands or HSV-1 stimulation was significantly related with plasma levels of sex hormones in both groups, whereas no correlation was found in cytokines produced following TLR7 and TLR8 stimulation. Given the role of an early production of IL10 by cells of innate immunity in modulating innate and adaptive immune response to viruses, we suggest that sex-related difference in its production following viral nucleic acid stimulation of TLRs may be involved in the sex-related variability in response to viral infections.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39853. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of TLR agonists on maturation and function of 3-day dendritic cells from AML patients in complete remission.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Active dendritic cell (DC) immunization protocols are rapidly gaining interest as therapeutic options in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we present for the first time a GMP-compliant 3-day protocol for generation of monocyte-derived DCs using different synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in intensively pretreated patients with AML. Four different maturation cocktails were compared for their impact on cell recovery, phenotype, cytokine secretion, migration, and lymphocyte activation in 20 AML patients and 25 healthy controls. Maturation cocktails containing the TLR7/8 agonists R848 or CL075, with and without the addition of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C), induced DCs that had a positive costimulatory profile, secreted high levels of IL-12(p70), showed chemotaxis to CCR7 ligands, had the ability to activate NK cells, and efficiently stimulated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Our results demonstrate that this approach translates into biologically improved DCs, not only in healthy controls but also in AML patients. This data supports the clinical application of TLR-matured DCs in patients with AML for activation of innate and adaptive immune responses.Journal of Translational Medicine 09/2011; 9:151. · 3.41 Impact Factor
Article: The chemotherapeutic drug oxaliplatin differentially affects blood DC function dependent on environmental cues.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has become evident that the tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cancerous growth. One of the acquired functions of the tumor microenvironment is the suppression of immune responses. Indeed, blocking the inhibitory pathways operational in the microenvironment results in enhanced T-cell-dependent, anti-tumor immunity. Chemotherapeutic drugs not only directly kill tumor cells but also shape the tumor microenvironment and potentiate anti-tumor immunity. Here, we demonstrate that the chemotherapeutic compound oxaliplatin acts as a double-edged sword. Besides killing tumor cells, oxaliplatin bolsters immunosuppressive pathways, resulting in decreased activation of T cells by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Exposure to oxaliplatin markedly increased expression of the T-cell inhibitory molecule programmed death receptor-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on human pDCs and also TLR9-induced IFNα secretion. Furthermore, oxaliplatin decreased TLR-induced STAT1 and STAT3 expression, and NF-κB-mediated responses. The oxaliplatin induced upregulation of PD-L1 and downregulation of costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 resulted in decreased T-cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that platinum-based anticancer drugs adapt TLR-induced signaling in human pDCs and myeloid DCs (mDCs), thereby downgrading their immunostimulatory potential.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 12/2011; 61(7):1101-11. · 3.70 Impact Factor