Wireless control of powered wheelchairs with tongue motion using tongue drive assistive technology.
ABSTRACT Tongue Drive system (TDS) is a tongue-operated unobtrusive wireless assistive technology, which can potentially provide people with severe disabilities with effective computer access and environment control. It translates users' intentions into control commands by detecting and classifying their voluntary tongue motion utilizing a small permanent magnet, secured on the tongue, and an array of magnetic sensors mounted on a headset outside the mouth or an orthodontic brace inside. We have developed customized interface circuitry and implemented four control strategies to drive a powered wheelchair (PWC) using an external TDS prototype. The system has been evaluated by five able-bodied human subjects. The results showed that all subjects could easily operate the PWC using their tongue movements, and different control strategies worked better depending on the users' familiarity with the TDS.
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ABSTRACT: With about 2.2 million Americans currently using wheeled mobility devices, wheelchairs are frequently provided to people with impaired mobility to provide accessibility to the community. Individuals with spinal cord injuries, arthritis, balance disorders, and other conditions or diseases are typical users of wheelchairs. However, secondary injuries and wheelchair-related accidents are risks introduced by wheelchairs. Research is underway to advance wheelchair design to prevent or accommodate secondary injuries related to propulsion and transfer biomechanics, while improving safe, functional performance and accessibility to the community. This paper summarizes research and development underway aimed at enhancing safety and optimizing wheelchair design.IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 01/2007; 14(4):438-55. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the development of an eyeglass-type infrared (IR)-controlled computer interface for the disabled. This system may serve to assist those who suffer from spinal cord injuries or other handicaps to operate a computer. This system is comprised of three major components: 1) an infrared transmitting module, 2) an infrared receiving/signal-processing module, and 3) a main controller, the Intel-8951 microprocessor. The infrared transmitting module utilizes tongue-touch circuitry which is converted to an infrared beam and a low power laser (<0.1 mW) beam. The infrared receiving/signal-processing module, receives the infrared beam and fine tunes the unstable infrared beam into standard pulses which are used as control signals. The main controller is responsible for detecting the input signals from the infrared receiving/signal-processing module and verifying these signals with the mapping table in its memory. After the signal is verified, it is released to control the keys of the computer keyboard and mouse interface. This design concept was mainly based on the idea that the use of an infrared remote module fastened to the eyeglasses could allow the convenient control of the input motion on the keys of a computer keyboard and mouse which are all modified with infrared receiving/signal-processing modules. The system is designed for individuals with spinal cord injuries and disabled in which the subjects' movement are severely restricted. The infrared transmitting module can be easily mounted on eyeglasses or artificial limbsIEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 01/2000;
Conference Paper: A Magnetic Wireless Tongue-Computer Interface[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have developed a noninvasive, unobtrusive magnetic wireless tongue-computer interface, called "Tongue Drive", to provide people with severe disabilities with flexible and effective computer access and environment control. A small permanent magnet secured on the tongue using a tongue clip, tissue adhesive, or tongue piercing is utilized as a marker to track tongue movements. The magnetic field variations due to the marker movements are detected by an array of magnetic sensors mounted on a headset outside the mouth or an orthodontic brace inside. The sensor outputs are then processed and translated into different user control commands after being wirelessly transmitted to a portable computer (PC or PDA). These commands can be used to access a computer by substituting the mouse or keyboard functions. They can also be customized to operate a powered wheelchair, a phone, or other equipments. For human trials, we have developed a prototype system with 6 direct commands on a baseball helmet and successfully tested it. The Tongue Drive system response time for >95% correctly completed commands is about 1.5 s.Neural Engineering, 2007. CNE '07. 3rd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on; 06/2007