Physiological role of nitric oxide in oxygen consumption by arteriolar wall
ABSTRACT To study the role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating oxygen consumption by vessel walls, the oxygen consumption rate of arteriolar walls in rat cremaster muscle was measured in vivo during flow-induced vasodilation and after inhibiting NO synthesis. The oxygen consumption rate of arteriolar walls was calculated based on the intra- and peri-vascular oxygen tension (PO(2)) values measured by phosphorescence quenching laser microscopy. The peri-vascular PO(2) value of the arterioles during vasodilation was significantly higher than under control conditions, although the intravascular PO(2) values under both conditions were approximately the same. On the other hand, inhibition of NO synthesis caused a significant decrease in both the intra- and peri-vascular PO(2) values of the arterioles. The inhibition of NO synthesis increased the oxygen consumption rate of the vessel walls by 42%, whereas enhancement of flow-induced NO release decreased it by 34%. These results suggest that NO plays an important role not only as a regulator of peripheral vascular tone, but also as a modulator of tissue oxygen consumption by reducing oxygen consumption by vessel walls.
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ABSTRACT: The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.General dentistry 01/2010; 58(1):18-25; quiz 26-7, 79-80.