Differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum clinical isolates from Japanese and Chinese patients by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and DNA sequence analysis of the non-transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene.
ABSTRACT Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis worldwide. Recent genetic investigations showed that the microorganism originated in Africa and then spread to Europe and North America via Asia.
We investigated the intraspecific diversity of T. rubrum isolated from two closely located Asian countries, Japan and China.
A total of 150 clinical isolates of T. rubrum obtained from Japanese and Chinese patients were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and DNA sequence analysis of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region in the rRNA gene.
RAPD analysis divided the 150 strains into two major clusters, A and B. Of the Japanese isolates, 30% belonged to cluster A and 70% belonged to cluster B, whereas 91% of the Chinese isolates were in cluster A. The NTS region of the rRNA gene was divided into four major groups (I-IV) based on DNA sequencing. The majority of Japanese isolates were type IV (51%), and the majority of Chinese isolates were type III (75%).
These results suggest that although Japan and China are neighboring countries, the origins of T. rubrum isolates from these countries may not be identical. These findings provide information useful for tracing the global transmission routes of T. rubrum.
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ABSTRACT: Trichophyton tonsurans is the major pediatric pathogen in tinea capitis, causing disparate disease presentations. Little is known about genetic variation, which may ultimately be linked to divergent disease status. This investigation was aimed at identifying genetic variants of T. tonsurans by methods that can facilitate strain discrimination in population-based studies. Ninety-two isolates were acquired from six U.S. microbiology laboratories, and genomic DNA was isolated from mature colonies. The nontranscribed spacer (NTS) was amplified by PCR, and products from isolates with various amplicon sizes were fully sequenced. Nested amplification, targeting a variable internal repeat (VIR) region, allowed assignment of variant type by fragment size. Subvariant type was assigned by a combination of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-based assays. Five variants differing in size (348 to 700 bp) and sequence were identified within the VIR region comprised of several large repeats (104, 140, and 194 bp) arranged in tandem. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected across the NTS, with five occurring in the constant regions flanking the VIR region and two occurring in the VIR region. Additionally, a 10-bp insertion and a 14-bp deletion were identified upstream of the VIR region. The combination of SNPs revealed seven haplotype patterns which were stable upon serial passage over 1 year. No sequence variations were identified within the internal transcribed spacer regions. Unique NTS sequences were utilized to develop a duplex PCR assay that discriminated T. tonsurans from other dermatophytes. Of the 92 isolates evaluated, this genotyping scheme distinguished 12 distinct strains, providing evidence of genetic heterogeneity in T. tonsurans.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2004; 41(12):5478-87. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular genotyping of strains of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes from patients with onychomycosis of the toes was performed to ascertain whether the fungal genotype changes over the course of time as sequential samples were obtained from patients receiving antifungal therapy and during follow-up. Sixty-six serial strains of T. rubrum and 11 strains of T. mentagrophytes were obtained from 20 patients (16 patients with T. rubrum, 4 with T. mentagrophytes) who were treated with oral antifungal therapy and observed over periods of up to 36 months. These strains were screened for genetic variation by hybridization of EcoRI-digested genomic DNAs with a probe amplified from the small-subunit (18S) ribosomal DNA and adjacent internal transcribed spacer regions. A total of five restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) types were observed among 66 strains of T. rubrum. Two major RFLP types, differentiated by one band shift, represented 68% of the samples. None of the patients had a unique genotype. More than one RFLP type was often observed from a single patient (same nail) over a period of 1, 2, or 3 years, even in cases that did not appear cured at any time. Samples taken from different nails of the same patient had either the same or a different genotype. The genotypic variation did not correspond to any detectable phenotypic variation. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between the efficacy of the treatment administered and the genotype observed. While the DNA region studied distinguished among T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and T. tonsurans, intraspecific RFLP variation was observed for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes strains. While independent multiple infection and coinhabitation of multiple strains may explain the presence of different genotypes in a nail, microevolutionary events such as rapid substrain shuffling, as seen in studies of repetitive regions in Candida species, may also produce the same result. The recovery of multiple strains during the course of sequential sampling of uncured patients further suggests that the typing system is not able to distinguish between relapse or reinfection, ongoing infection, and de novo infection.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2001; 39(9):3260-6. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infections of the skin, hair and nails by dermatophyte fungi are common in developed and developing countries alike. However, the species involved and the resulting clinical entities vary both geographically and with time. We have surveyed 15,333 dermatophytes obtained from primary isolations at the Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol, UK from 1980 through 2005. Several striking trends in dermatophyte prevalence were apparent over this period. The relative frequencies of isolations of Microsporum canis (cat and dog ringworm), Trichophyton verrucosum (cattle ringworm), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (rodent ringworm) and Epidermophyton floccosum (a cause of human groin and foot infections) all decreased by 90%. Conversely, the contributions of T. tonsurans and T. violaceum (two anthropophilic scalp-infecting species) to total dermatophyte isolations increased by 1000% over the same period. Finally, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, the two common causes of foot infection comprised 80% of all dermatophytes isolated in 1980 and 90% of isolations in 2005. Similar trends in dermatophyte prevalence were evidenced throughout the British Isles, based on the voluntary reporting of isolations from a large number of British laboratories at 5-yearly intervals over the same period. The implications of these changing patterns of dermatophyte species, and the clinical entities they produce are discussed in the context of a review of worldwide dermatophyte isolations over the last three decades, with emphasis on the causal agents of tinea capitis.Medical Mycology 04/2007; 45(2):131-41. · 1.98 Impact Factor