Flower extract of Panax notoginseng attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-kappa B signaling pathway in murine macrophages
ABSTRACT The root of Panax notoginseng (PN) is commonly used to treat chronic liver disease with its therapeutic abilities to stop haemorrhage in the circulation, while the PN flower (PN-F) is largely unknown in the biological activities on inflammation and mechanisms of its actions. In this study, the pharmacologic effects of PN-F methanol extract on inflammation were investigated to address potential therapeutic or toxic effects in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells, RAW264.7 cells.
Production of NO, PGE2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in supernatant, the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines, the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK), and the activation of NF-kappaB in PN-F extract were assayed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
PN-F extract significantly inhibited the productions of NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta on the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, PN-F extract suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The molecular mechanism of PN-F extract-mediated attenuation in RAW264.7 cells has close a relationship to suppressing the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules such as ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, and the translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit into nuclear.
These results indicate that PN-F extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response via the blocking of NF-kappaB signaling pathway in macrophages, and demonstrated that PN-F extract possesses anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with λ-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent pathways.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:329712. DOI:10.1155/2014/329712 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation has recently been implicated as a critical mechanism responsible for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, paeonol (1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone) isolated from the sea horse Hippocampus kuda Bleeler was studied as an agent to suppress LPS induced activation of BV-2 microglial and RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results obtained showed that paeonol significantly suppressed LPS induced release of pro-inflammatory products such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)), and cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, the compound down regulated the protein and gene expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in both cell lines. Molecular signaling pathway studies showed that paeonol inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and p50 subunits to the nucleus by blocking IKKα/β (IκB kinase α/β) mediated degradation of IκBα. Moreover, it suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway molecules; c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 in both cell lines. Collectively these results indicate that paeonol blocked the LPS stimulated inflammatory responses in BV-2 and RAW264.7 cells via modulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Therefore, paeonol could be a promising candidate to be used in neuro-inflammatory therapy.Toxicology in Vitro 04/2012; 26(6):878-87. DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2012.04.022 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cissus quadrangularis (family: Vitaceae) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of hemorrhoids, gastric ulcers and bone healing. In the present study, we determined the anti-inflammatory activity and the molecular mechanism of the ethyl acetate extract of Cissus quadrangularis stem (CQE) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The inhibitory effect of CQE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated in conditioned media. Cell viability was monitored by MTT assay. Protein and mRNA expressions were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. CQE potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were suppressed also by CQE as was p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation. Further study demonstrated that CQE by itself induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression at the protein and mRNA levels in dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the inhibitory effects of CQE on NO production were abrogated by a HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Collectively, these results suggest that CQE exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages, at least in part, through the induction of HO-1 expression. These findings provide the scientific rationale for anti-inflammatory therapeutic use of Cissus quadrangularis stem.Journal of ethnopharmacology 02/2011; 133(3):1008-14. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.029 · 2.94 Impact Factor