Flower extract of Panax notoginseng attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-kappa B signaling pathway in murine macrophages
ABSTRACT The root of Panax notoginseng (PN) is commonly used to treat chronic liver disease with its therapeutic abilities to stop haemorrhage in the circulation, while the PN flower (PN-F) is largely unknown in the biological activities on inflammation and mechanisms of its actions. In this study, the pharmacologic effects of PN-F methanol extract on inflammation were investigated to address potential therapeutic or toxic effects in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells, RAW264.7 cells.
Production of NO, PGE2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in supernatant, the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines, the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK), and the activation of NF-kappaB in PN-F extract were assayed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
PN-F extract significantly inhibited the productions of NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta on the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, PN-F extract suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The molecular mechanism of PN-F extract-mediated attenuation in RAW264.7 cells has close a relationship to suppressing the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules such as ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, and the translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit into nuclear.
These results indicate that PN-F extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response via the blocking of NF-kappaB signaling pathway in macrophages, and demonstrated that PN-F extract possesses anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.
SourceAvailable from: Yong-Han Hong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with λ-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent pathways.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:329712. DOI:10.1155/2014/329712 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower ethanolic extract (LFEE) contained five flavanoids (total amount,102.73 ± 5.50 mg/g of dried extract (gDE)), nine phenolic acids (total amount, 60.31 ± 4.52 mg/ gDE) and proanthocyanidin A2 (79.31 ± 2.95 mg/ gDE). LFEE was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 cells. Results show that LFEE treatment could suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) productions, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) secretions in the LPS-mediated RAW264.7 cells. The attenuation of LPS-induced inflammatory responses by LFEE was closely related to inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50/p65 subunits translocation correlated with suppressing inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) α/β activation, and down-regulation of activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2014; 62(15). DOI:10.1021/jf5003705 · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1μg/mL) and E. coli LPS (1μg/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10-1000 μg/mL) for 5 days at 37oC/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000 μg/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells.International Journal of Cell Biology 06/2014; DOI:10.1155/2014/535789