Flower extract of Panax notoginseng attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signaling pathway in murine macrophages

Department of Herbology, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714, South Korea.
Journal of ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 03/2009; 122(2):313-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The root of Panax notoginseng (PN) is commonly used to treat chronic liver disease with its therapeutic abilities to stop haemorrhage in the circulation, while the PN flower (PN-F) is largely unknown in the biological activities on inflammation and mechanisms of its actions. In this study, the pharmacologic effects of PN-F methanol extract on inflammation were investigated to address potential therapeutic or toxic effects in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells, RAW264.7 cells.
Production of NO, PGE2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in supernatant, the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines, the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK), and the activation of NF-kappaB in PN-F extract were assayed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
PN-F extract significantly inhibited the productions of NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta on the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, PN-F extract suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The molecular mechanism of PN-F extract-mediated attenuation in RAW264.7 cells has close a relationship to suppressing the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules such as ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK, and the translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit into nuclear.
These results indicate that PN-F extract inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response via the blocking of NF-kappaB signaling pathway in macrophages, and demonstrated that PN-F extract possesses anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.

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    • "Thus, inhibition of activation of these cells appears to be an important target when treating inflammatory diseases. Stimulation of macrophages with LPS induces high production of NO by iNOS and PGE 2 by cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 [25]. Therefore, a reagent that prevents the release of these mediators or downregulates iNOS or COX-2 expression may possess anti-inflammatory activities. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with λ-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent pathways.
    BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:329712. DOI:10.1155/2014/329712 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "The production of inflammatory molecules by murine monocyte macrophage RAW 264.7 cells can be induced in response to LPS stimulation [9, 11]. Thus, inhibitors of these inflammatory molecules may be considered anti-inflammatory drug candidates [16]. Allium cepa L. has been used to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma [5] and ovariectomy-induced bone resorption in rats [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Allium cepa L. is known to possess numerous pharmacological properties. Our aim was to examine the in vitro effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells to determine cell viability to other future cell-based assays. Osteoclast precursor cells (RAW 264.7) were stimulated by Pg LPS (1μg/mL) and E. coli LPS (1μg/mL) in the presence or absence of different concentrations of AcE (10-1000 μg/mL) for 5 days at 37oC/5% CO2. Resazurin reduction and total protein content assays were used to detect cell viability. AcE did not affect cell viability. Resazurin reduction assay showed that AcE, at up to 1000 μg/mL, did not significantly affect cell viability and cellular protein levels. Additionally a caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis and there was no difference in apoptotic activity between tested groups and control group. Fluorescence images stained by DAPI showed no alteration on the morphology and cell counts of LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells with the use of AcE in all tested concentrations when compared to control. These findings suggest that Allium cepa L. extract could be used for in vitro studies on Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS and Escherichia coli LPS-stimulated osteoclast precursor cells.
    International Journal of Cell Biology 06/2014; DOI:10.1155/2014/535789
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    • "Rb1 also suppressed the mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-10 and nuclear factor of activated T cells in splenocytes [24]. An extract of the root of P. notoginseng, which contains the ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rd and the notoginsenoside R1, significantly inhibited the inflammatory response by blocking the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-1β [30] and by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway [30,31]. In another study, an extract from P. quinquefolius (American ginseng) inhibited nitric oxide synthase expression by blocking the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Korean red ginseng (KRG) is reported to have anti-allergic properties, including beneficial effects on asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, its effect on allergic rhinitis has not been studied extensively. This study examined how KRG affected allergic inflammation of the nasal cavity in an allergic mouse model. A total of 40 Balb/c female mice were divided into four experimental groups according to treatment and allergic state: group 1 (G1), saline only; group 2 (G2), ovalbumin (OVA); group 3 (G3), OVA+KRG; and group 4 (G4), OVA+dexamethasone. Serum IgE levels were significantly lower in the KRG treatment group (G3) than in the allergic group (G2). However, serum IgG1 levels did not differ between G2 and G3. In the nasal lavage fluid, IL-4 and IL-5 levels were significantly lower in G3 than in G2 (p<0.05). H&E and Luna staining revealed that the eosinophil count was lower in G3 and G4 than in G2 (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that there were fewer IL-4-, IL- 5-, and MUC5AC-positive cells in G3 and G4 than in G2 (p<0.05). These results indicate that KRG reduces the nasal allergic inflammatory reaction in an allergic murine model by reducing Th2 cytokines.
    Journal of ginseng research 04/2013; 37(2):167-175. DOI:10.5142/jgr.2013.37.167 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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