Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Mail Stop E-62, Atlanta, GA 30333, United States.
Hepatitis A is the most common type of hepatitis reported in the United States. Prior to hepatitis A vaccine introduction in 1996, hepatitis A incidence followed a cyclic pattern with peak incidence occurring every 10-15 years. During 1980-1995, between 22,000 and 36,000 hepatitis A cases were reported annually. Since 1996, hepatitis A vaccination recommendations have included adults at risk for infection and children living in communities with the highest disease rates. This study provides the first national estimates of self-reported hepatitis A vaccination coverage among persons aged 18-49 years in the United States.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although primary prevention of HAV and HBV can be achieved through vaccination, the burden of HCV can only be reduced through behavioral interventions to reduce its risk factors. This study evaluated knowledge regarding transmission, clinical manifestations and prevention of viral hepatitis in Puerto Rico. We assessed the level of knowledge about HAV (six questions), HBV (12 questions) and HCV (eight questions) among non-institutionalized Puerto Rican adults aged 21-64 years. Demographic characteristics and self-reported knowledge of these infections were determined through a face-to-face interview. A mean knowledge score was computed by summing correct responses to each scale. Mean knowledge scores according to demographics were compared using ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean knowledge scores for HAV, HBV and HCV infections were 2.6 ± 1.5, 6.1 ± 2.4, and 3.6 ± 1.1, respectively. For HAV and HBV infections, the mean knowledge score significantly (P < 0.05) increased with age, level of counseling received and number of sources of information. However, for HCV infection the mean knowledge score significantly increased with decreasing age, increased educational level and increased annual family income. Contrary to HBV, a higher HAV and HCV knowledge score was observed among individuals with history of vaccination for HAV and HBV, seropositive status for HAV and HCV, and history of drug use. A sizeable proportion of adults in this study demonstrated an inadequate level of knowledge, especially about transmission routes. Health education must be focused on transmission and prevention methods, including the availability of a vaccine for HAV and HBV, especially among those with chronic liver disease.
Journal of Community Health 12/2010; 36(4):565-73. DOI:10.1007/s10900-010-9342-6 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We described seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) in the United States during 1999-2006 and compared it with seroprevalence before the availability of vaccine.
We analyzed data from the 1988-1994 and 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of anti-HAV seroprevalence for the U.S. household population. We grouped region of residence based on the 1999 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations into 17 states with any recommendation (vaccinating) and 33 states without any recommendation (non-vaccinating).
During 1999-2006, the overall seroprevalence of anti-HAV was 34.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.1, 36.7). During 1999-2006, U.S.-born children living in vaccinating states (33.8%, 95% CI 26.2, 42.2) had a higher seroprevalence than children in non-vaccinating states (11.0%, 95% CI 9.4, 12.8; p < 0.001). Seroprevalence among children increased from 8.0% (95% CI 6.3, 10.1) during 1988-1994 to 20.2% (95% CI 16.0, 24.8) during 1999-2006 (p < 0.001). For U.S.-born children aged 6-19 years, the strongest factor associated with seroprevalence was residence in vaccinating states. Among U.S.-born adults aged > 19 years, the overall age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HAV was 29.9% (95% CI 28.3, 31.5) during 1999-2006, which was not significantly different from the seroprevalence during 1988-1994 (32.2%, 95% CI 30.1, 34.4).
Increases in seroprevalence among children in vaccinating states suggest a positive effect of the 1999 vaccination recommendations.
Public Health Reports 01/2011; 126(4):522-32. DOI:10.2307/41639394 · 1.55 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.