Multiple roles of Gi/o protein-coupled receptors in control of action potential secretion coupling in pituitary lactotrophs.
ABSTRACT G(i/o) protein-coupled receptors, signaling through G protein-dependent and protein-independent pathways, have prominent effects on secretion by modulating calcium signaling and regulating the size of the releasable secretory pool, the rates of exocytosis and endocytosis, and de novo synthesis. Pituitary cells fire action potentials spontaneously, and the associated calcium influx is sufficient to maintain prolactin (PRL) release but not gonadotropin release at high and steady levels for many hours. Such secretion, termed intrinsic, spontaneous, or basal, reflects fusion of secretory vesicles triggered by the cell type-specific pattern of action potentials. In lactotrophs, activation of endothelin ET(A) and dopamine D(2) receptors causes inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity and basal adenylyl cyclase activity accompanied with inhibition of basal PRL release. Agonist-induced inhibition of cAMP production and firing of action potentials is abolished in cells with blocked pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G(i/o) signaling pathway. However, agonist-induced inhibition of PRL release is only partially relieved in such treated cells, indicating that both receptors also inhibit exocytosis downstream of cAMP/calcium signaling. The PTX-insensitive step in agonist-induced inhibition of PRL release is not affected by inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 but is partially rescued by downregulation of the G(z)alpha expression. Thus, ET(A) and D(2) receptors inhibit basal PRL release not only by blocking electrical activity but also by desensitizing calcium-secretion coupling.
Article: Periodontal Screening & Recording.LDA journal 02/1993; 52(1):15-6.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 1. Secretory responses were measured in single rat pituitary melanotrophs as the relative increase in membrane capacitance (Cm) 8 min after the start of dialysis with solutions containing 0.45 microM Ca2+. In the added presence of cAMP (0.2 mM) in the patch pipette solution, capacitance responses increased 2- to 3-fold in comparison with controls. 2. To study whether cAMP-dependent mechanisms affect cytosolic calcium activity ([Ca2+]i), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP, 10 mM) was added to intact melanotrophs and [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2 AM. Addition of dbcAMP caused a transient reduction in [Ca2+]i to 82 +/- 21 nM from a resting value of 100 +/- 19 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 32, P < 0.002), indicating that the cAMP-induced increase in secretory activity was not the result of cAMP acting to increase [Ca2+]i, which then increased secretory activity. 3. To investigate whether cAMP affects the secretory apparatus directly, the interaction of a single secretory granule with the plasmalemma was monitored by measuring discrete femtofarad steps in Cm. The signal-to-noise ratio of recordings was increased by pre-incubating the cells with a hydrophobic anion, dipicrylamine. 4. Recordings of unitary exocytic events (discrete 'on' steps in Cm) showed that the amplitude of 'on' steps - a parameter correlated to the size of exocytosing secretory granules - increased from 4.2 +/- 0.2 fF (n = 356) in controls to 7.9 +/- 0.2 fF in the presence of cAMP (n = 329, P < 0.001), while the frequency of unitary exocytic events was similar in controls and in the presence of cAMP. 5. The results suggest that a cAMP-dependent mechanism mediates the fusion of larger granules with the plasmalemma.The Journal of Physiology 09/1998; 511 ( Pt 3):851-9. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Secretion of gonadotropic hormones from pituitary gonadotropes in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential for regulation of reproductive potential. Gonadotropes from male rats exhibited an unusual form of cellular excitation that resulted from periodic membrane hyperpolarization. GnRH induced an oscillatory release of intracellular Ca2+ via a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding protein-coupled phosphoinositide pathway and hyperpolarized the gonadotrope periodically by opening apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K+ (SK) channels. Each hyperpolarization was terminated by firing of a few action potentials that may result from removal of inactivation from voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels.Science 02/1992; 255(5043):462-4. · 31.20 Impact Factor