Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases.

1] Elan Pharmaceuticals, 180 Oyster Point Boulevard, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA [2].
Nature Communications (Impact Factor: 10.74). 06/2013; 4:1982. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2982
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson's disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection. The RING-between-RING family of E3 ligases are suggested to function with a canonical RING domain and a catalytic cysteine residue usually restricted to HECT E3 ligases, thus termed 'RING/HECT hybrid' enzymes. Here we present the 1.58 Å structure of Parkin-R0RBR, revealing the fold architecture for the four RING domains, and several unpredicted interfaces. Examination of the Parkin active site suggests a catalytic network consisting of C431 and H433. In cells, mutation of C431 eliminates Parkin-catalysed degradation of mitochondria, and capture of an ubiquitin oxyester confirms C431 as Parkin's cellular active site. Our data confirm that Parkin is a RING/HECT hybrid, and provide the first crystal structure of an RING-between-RING E3 ligase at atomic resolution, providing insight into this disease-related protein.

Download full-text


Available from: Brigit E Riley, Jul 12, 2014
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the Park2 gene, encoding the E3 ubiquitin-ligase parkin, are responsible for a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin-mediated ubiquitination is critical for the efficient elimination of depolarized dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). As damaged mitochondria are a major source of toxic reactive oxygen species within the cell, this pathway is believed to be highly relevant to the pathogenesis of PD. Little is known about how parkin-mediated ubiquitination is regulated during mitophagy or about the nature of the ubiquitin conjugates involved. We report here that USP8/UBPY, a deubiquitinating enzyme not previously implicated in mitochondrial quality control, is critical for parkin-mediated mitophagy. USP8 preferentially removes non-canonical K6-linked ubiquitin chains from parkin, a process required for the efficient recruitment of parkin to depolarized mitochondria and for their subsequent elimination by mitophagy. This work uncovers a novel role for USP8-mediated deubiquitination of K6-linked ubiquitin conjugates from parkin in mitochondrial quality control.
    The EMBO Journal 09/2014; DOI:10.15252/embj.201489729 · 10.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PINK1 selectively recruits Parkin to depolarized mitochondria for quarantine and removal of damaged mitochondria via ubiquitylation. Dysfunction of this process predisposes development of familial recessive Parkinson's disease. Although various models for the recruitment process have been proposed, none of them adequately explain the accumulated data, and thus the molecular basis for PINK1 recruitment of Parkin remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we show that a linear ubiquitin chain of phosphomimetic tetra-ubiquitin(S65D) recruits Parkin to energized mitochondria in the absence of PINK1, whereas a wild-type tetra-ubiquitin chain does not. Under more physiologically relevant conditions, a lysosomal phosphorylated polyubiquitin chain recruited phosphomimetic Parkin to the lysosome. A cellular ubiquitin replacement system confirmed that ubiquitin phosphorylation is indeed essential for Parkin translocation. Furthermore, physical interactions between phosphomimetic Parkin and phosphorylated polyubiquitin chain were detected by immunoprecipitation from cells and in vitro reconstitution using recombinant proteins. We thus propose that the phosphorylated ubiquitin chain functions as the genuine Parkin receptor for recruitment to depolarized mitochondria. © 2015 Okatsu et al.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2015; 209(1). DOI:10.1083/jcb.201410050 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clonorchis sinensis habitating in the bile duct of mammals causes clonorchiasis endemic in East Asian countries. Parkin is a RING-between-RING protein and has E3-ubiquitin ligase activity catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins. A cDNA clone of C. sinensis was predicted to encode a polypeptide homologous to parkin (CsParkin) including 5 domains (Ubl, RING0, RING1, IBR, and RING2). The cysteine and histidine residues binding to Zn(2+) were all conserved and participated in formation of tertiary structural RINGs. Conserved residues were also an E2-binding site in RING1 domain and a catalytic cysteine residue in the RING2 domain. Native CsParkin was determined to have an estimated molecular weight of 45.7 kDa from C. sinensis adults by immunoblotting. CsParkin revealed E3-ubiquitin ligase activity and higher expression in metacercariae than in adults. CsParkin was localized in the locomotive and male reproductive organs of C. sinensis adults, and extensively in metacercariae. Parkin has been found to participate in regulating mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. From these results, it is suggested that CsParkin play roles in energy metabolism of the locomotive organs, and possibly in protein metabolism of the reproductive organs of C. sinensis.
    The Korean Journal of Parasitology 02/2015; 53(1):65-75. DOI:10.3347/kjp.2015.53.1.65 · 0.97 Impact Factor