Article

Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir for treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with virological failure of a standard fi rst-line ART regimen (SECOND-LINE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study

The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 01/2013; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61164-2

ABSTRACT Background Uncertainty exists about the best treatment for people with HIV-1 who have virological failure with
first-line combination antiretroviral therapy of a non-nucleoside analogue (NNRTI) plus two nucleoside or nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTI). We compared a second-line regimen combining two new classes of drug with a WHO-recommended regimen.
Methods We did this 96-week, phase 3b/4, randomised, open-label non-inferiority trial at 37 sites worldwide. Adults with HIV-1 who had confirmed virological failure (plasma viral load >500 copies per mL) after 24 weeks or more of first-line treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three NtRTIs (control group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group). The randomisation sequence was computer generated with block randomisation (block size four). Neither participants nor investigators were masked to allocation. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with plasma viral load less than 200 copies per mL at 48 weeks in the modified intention-to-treat population, with a non-inferiority margin of 12%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00931463.
Findings We enrolled 558 patients, of whom 541 (271 in the control group, 270 in the raltegravir group) were included in the primary analysis. At 48 weeks, 219 (81%) patients in the control group compared with 223 (83%) in the raltegravir group met the primary endpoint (difference 1·8%, 95% CI –4·7 to 8·3), fulfilling the criterion for non-inferiority. 993 adverse events occurred in 271 participants in the control group versus 895 in 270 participants in the raltegravir group, the most common being gastrointestinal.
Interpretation The raltegravir regimen was no less efficacious than the standard of care and was safe and well tolerated. This simple NtRTI-free treatment strategy might extend the successful public health approach to management of HIV by providing simple, easy to administer, effective, safe, and tolerable second-line combination antiretroviral therapy.

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Available from: Jeganathan Sarangapany, Jan 18, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To compare changes over 48 weeks in bone mineral density (BMD) between participants randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) + raltegravir (RAL) or LPV/r + 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTIs) as Second Line therapy. 48-week open-label sub-study of the Second Line trial conducted in South Africa, India, Thailand, Malaysia and Argentina. Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry scans of proximal femur and lumbar spine were performed at baseline and week 48. Linear regression was used to compare means of differences between arms. McNemars test compared osteopenia and osteoporosis. Associations between percentage BMD changes and baseline variables were assessed by multivariate linear regression. Two hundred and ten participants were randomized. Analyses were adjusted for sex, BMI and smoking status. Mean (95% CI) proximal femur BMD% reduced over 48 weeks by -5.2% (-6.7 to -3.8%) in the LPV/r+2-3N(t)RTIs arm and by -2.9% (-4.3 to -1.5%) in the LPV/r+RAL arm (P = 0.0001). Lumbar spine BMD reduced by -4.2% (-5.7 to -2.7%) in the LPV/r+2-3N(t)RTIs arm and by -2.0% (-3.5 to -0.6%) in the LPV/r+RAL arm (P = 0.0006). The incidence of osteopenia (7.6%) and osteoporosis (2.0%) assessed over 48 weeks were similar between arms. Reduced BMD over 48 weeks was significantly associated with longer duration of tenofovir on study [% change (SE) -1.58 (0.38) femur, -1.65 (0.38) spine, P = 0.0001] and low baseline BMI [% change (SE) 0.5 (0.13) femur, 0.17 (0.07) spine; P < 0.01]. An N(t)RTI-sparing antiretroviral regimen of LPV/r and raltegravir as Second Line therapy is associated with less bone loss than a LPV/r regimen containing N(t)RTIs.
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