Chapter

Acuicultura costera

01/2011; In book: AMBIENTE, BIOLOGÍA, MANEJO Y LEGISLACIÓN DE AMBIENTES COSTEROS MEXICANOS, Edition: 1, Chapter: Acuicultura Costera, Publisher: Plaza y Valdes Editores, Editors: Guadalupe De la Lanza-Espino, pp.301-328

ABSTRACT Introducción La acuicultura es sin lugar a dudas la actividad agroindustrial de mayor expansión a nivel mundial en las últimas tres décadas, con una tasa anual de crecimiento de casi 9% lo que le ha permitido pasar de una producción de menos de 5 mil millones de toneladas en 1970 a más de 60 millones de toneladas en el 2008 (52 550 toneladas si no se incluyen las plantas acuáticas) (figura 1), esto equivale a pasar de una contribución del 3.9% de la producción total de orga-nismos acuáticos en los años setenta a más de 47.5% en el 2008 (fAo, 2009). Esta tendencia al parecer se mantendrá por al menos las siguientes dos décadas, de tal manera que para ese entonces más de la mitad de la producción provendrá de la acuicultura. La acuicultura actualmente tiene dos vertientes: una es proveer de alimentos de alto valor nutricional y bajo costo a la población, mientras que la otra es proveer beneficios económicos a las empresas dedicadas a la actividad o divisas para los países productores. La importancia de la acuicultura para alimentar a la población de países en vías de desarrollo ha sido reconocida por la fAo, y es un sector pro-ductivo con una gran proyección económica y social a nivel mundial (FAO, 2007). Actualmente se considera que la aportación de la acuicultura a la alimentación mundial es de 16.7 kg per cápita, sin embargo, esto no está homogéneamente dis-tribuido en todo el mundo, ya que en China y otros países asiáticos esta aportación es mucho mayor que en Latinoamérica o África; por ejemplo, la importancia en el segundo renglón, se refleja en el valor actual de la producción acuícola, el cual asciende a más de 85.9 billones de dólares (FAO, 2009).

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