Cuffed endotracheal tubes in children reduce sevoflurane and medical gas consumption and related costs: Cost effectiveness of cuffed paediatric tubes
ABSTRACT This study aims to evaluate sevoflurane and anaesthetic gas consumption using uncuffed vs. cuffed endotracheal tubes (ETT) in paediatric surgical patients.
Uncuffed or cuffed ETT were used in paediatric patients (newborn to 5 years) undergoing elective surgery in a randomized order. Duration of assessment, lowest possible fresh gas flow (minimal allowed FGF: 0.5 l/min) and sevoflurane concentrations used were recorded. Consumption and costs for sevoflurane and medical gases were calculated.
Seventy children (35 uncuffed ETT/35 cuffed ETT), aged 1.73 (0.01-4.80) years, were enrolled. No significant differences in patient characteristics, study period and sevoflurane concentrations used were found between the two groups. Lowest possible FGF was significantly lower in the cuffed ETT group [1.0 (0.5-1.0) l/min] than in the uncuffed ETT group [2.0 (0.5-4.3) l/min], P<0.001. Sevoflurane consumption per patient was 16.1 (6.4-82.8) ml in the uncuffed ETT group and 6.2 (1.1-14.9) ml in the cuffed ETT group, P=0.003. Medical gas consumption was 129 (53-552) l in the uncuffed ETT group vs. 46 (9-149) l in the cuffed ETT group, P<0.001. The total costs for sevoflurane and medical gases were 13.4 (6.0-67.3)euro/patient in the uncuffed ETT group and 5.2 (1.0-12.5)euro/patient in the cuffed ETT group, P<0.001.
The use of cuffed ETT in children significantly reduced the costs of sevoflurane and medical gas consumption during anaesthesia. Increased costs for cuffed compared with uncuffed ETT were completely compensated by a reduction in sevoflurane and medical gas consumption.
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ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, there has been a change in clinical practice with a transition to the use of cuffed instead of uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) in pediatric patients. These changes have led to concerns regarding unsafe intracuff pressures in pediatric patients, which may result in postoperative morbidity. To avoid these issues, it is generally suggested that the intracuff pressure be maintained at ≤30 cmH2 O. The current study prospectively assesses the changes in intracuff pressure related to alterations in head and neck position in pediatric patients. Patients less than 18 years of age, undergoing surgery, requiring endotracheal intubation with a cuffed ETT were eligible for inclusion. No alteration in the technique of anesthetic induction or maintenance was required for the study. Following endotracheal intubation and inflation of the cuff with the head and neck in a neutral position, the intracuff pressure was measured. The intracuff pressure was then subsequently measured with the head turned to the right, head turned to the left, head and neck flexed, and head and neck extended. A total of 200 patients were included in the study resulting in a total of 1000 intracuff pressure readings. When compared to the neutral position, the intracuff pressure increased in 545 instances (68.1%) with changes in position of the head and neck. An increase in intracuff pressure was noted more frequently and to the greatest degree with head and neck flexion. The pressure decreased in 153 instances (19.1%), most frequently with neck extension. Significant changes in the intracuff pressure occur with changes in head and neck position. In several cases, this resulted in a significant increase in the intracuff pressure. For prolonged cases with the head and neck turned from the neutral position, the intracuff pressure should be measured following patient positioning to ensure that the intracuff pressure is within the clinically recommended range.Pediatric Anesthesia 11/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ObjectiveA major concern with the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes (cETT) in children is hyperinflation of the cuff which may compromise tracheal mucosal perfusion. To measure the intracuff pressure (CP), we devised a method using the transducer of an invasive pressure monitoring device. The objective of the study was to test the accuracy and validity of this device for instantaneous and continuous CP monitoring.Methods The study was conducted in 2 phases. In Phase 1 (200 pediatric patients), after inflation of the cuff, the CP was measured using the standard manometer and the transducer simultaneously. In Phase 2 (20 pediatric patients), the transducer was left connected to the pilot balloon of the ETT to obtain a continuous CP reading and the standard manometer was used to measure the CP at 5-min intervals. Statistical analysis included a Bland–Altman comparison and linear regression analysis.ResultsIn Phase 1, linear regression analysis demonstrated an R2 value of 0.9956. The bias was 0.30 cmH2O, the precision was 0.75 cmH2O, and the 95% level of agreement (LOA) ranged from −1.16 to 1.77 cmH2O. In Phase 2, the linear regression analysis revealed an R2 value of 0.9846. The bias was 0.28 cmH2O, the precision was 0.7 cmH2O, and the 95% LOA ranged from −1.1 to 1.66 cmH2O.Conclusion Our study demonstrates that when cETTs are used in the pediatric population, the transducer of the invasive pressure monitoring device can be used reliably to measure the CP at the time of inflation and continuously thereafter.Pediatric Anesthesia 05/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The clinical practice of pediatric anesthesiology has changed with increasing use of cuffed endotracheal tubes (cETTs) in infants and children. To limit the risk of tracheal mucosal damage, regular monitoring of intracuff pressure (CP) is necessary. This study evaluates the efficacy and accuracy of a novel syringe device that provides a digital readout of the CP.Methods The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, an in vitro study, cETTs of sizes 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 mm ID were placed into polyvinylchloride tubing of appropriate sizes. The cuffs were then inflated, and the CP was measured simultaneously using the syringe device and a manometer. In phase 2, an in vivo study on 200 pediatric patients, the syringe device and the manometer were simultaneously attached to the pilot balloon to measure the CP following endotracheal intubation. Statistical analysis included linear regression analysis and Bland–Altman comparison.ResultsLinear regression analysis of the in vitro study demonstrated an R2 value of 0.9989. Bias and precision were −1.92 ± 0.62 with 95% level of agreement (LOA) ranging from −3.13 to −0.72. For the in vivo study, the linear regression analysis demonstrated an R2 value of 0.9943. The bias and precision were −0.53 ± 0.68 with 95% LOA ranging from −1.86 to 0.81.Conclusion The study has demonstrated clinically acceptable correlation between the CPs obtained from the standard manometer and the syringe device both in vitro and in vivo. This device is a simple, reliable, portable, and affordable method to monitor CP.Pediatric Anesthesia 07/2014; · 2.44 Impact Factor