Thyroid hormone and disorders of the central nervous system
Monatsschrift Kinderheilkunde - MONATSSCHR KINDERHEILK 01/2008; 156(10):961-971.
- Acta Paediatrica 12/2001; 90(11):1220-2. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sulfation is an important mechanism for regulating the biological activity of numerous hormones and neurotransmitters in man. Here we have investigated the ontogeny of sulfotransferases (SULT) and sulfatase (ARS) involved in the metabolism of thyroid hormone and dopamine. SULT1A1 enzyme activity was lower in postnatal liver and lung than in fetal tissues. Hepatic SULT1A3 (dopamine) was expressed at high levels early in development, but decreased substantially in late fetal/early neonatal liver and was essentially absent from the adult liver. In lung, significant SULT1A3 activity was observed in the fetus, but neonatal levels were considerably lower. In brain, the highest activity was observed in the choroid plexus for SULT1A1, with low and widespread activity for both SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 in other brain regions. SULT activity with 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T(2)) as substrate was measured in all tissues and correlated significantly with SULT1A1 activity (4-nitrophenol), suggesting that SULT1A1 is primarily responsible for the sulfation of this iodothyronine. The developmental expression of SULT1A3 and SULT1A1 in liver and brain was confirmed by immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry of developing liver showed substantial expression of these proteins in hemopoietic cells in fetal liver. We also detected low activity for the hydrolysis of 3,3'-T(2) sulfate by ARS, although there was less distinction between fetal and neonatal samples than with SULT activities. We have therefore shown that the developing fetus has substantial sulfation capacity. Sulfation may therefore play a major role in the homeostasis of hormones and other endogenous compounds as well as in detoxification in the fetus, particularly as other conjugating enzyme systems, such as the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, are not expressed at significant levels until the neonatal period.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 07/2001; 86(6):2734-42. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome was among the first of the X-linked mental retardation syndromes to be described (in 1944) and among the first to be regionally mapped on the X chromosome (in 1990). Six large families with the syndrome have been identified, and linkage studies have placed the gene locus in Xq13.2. Mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8) have been found in each of the six families. One essential function of the protein encoded by this gene appears to be the transport of triiodothyronine into neurons. Abnormal transporter function is reflected in elevated free triiodothyronine and lowered free thyroxine levels in the blood. Infancy and childhood in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome are marked by hypotonia, weakness, reduced muscle mass, and delay of developmental milestones. Facial manifestations are not distinctive, but the face tends to be elongated with bifrontal narrowing, and the ears are often simply formed or cupped. Some patients have myopathic facies. Generalized weakness is manifested by excessive drooling, forward positioning of the head and neck, failure to ambulate independently, or ataxia in those who do ambulate. Speech is dysarthric or absent altogether. Hypotonia gives way in adult life to spasticity. The hands exhibit dystonic and athetoid posturing and fisting. Cognitive development is severely impaired. No major malformations occur, intrauterine growth is not impaired, and head circumference and genital development are usually normal. Behavior tends to be passive, with little evidence of aggressive or disruptive behavior. Although clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction are usually absent in affected males, the disturbances in blood levels of thyroid hormones suggest the possibility of systematic detection through screening of high-risk populations.The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2005; 77(1):41-53. · 10.99 Impact Factor
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