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KAJIAN AWAL PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK DEDAK PADI DENGAN PROSES ESTERIFIKASI

01/2012;

ABSTRACT Abstrak Biodiesel merupakan bahan bakar alternatif yang dapat dibuat dari minyak nabati melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau esterifikasi-transesterifikasi dengan alkohol. Minyak dedak padi merupakan salah satu minyak nabati yang mengandung asam lemak bebas tinggi. Pada penelitian ini minyak dedak padi diesterifikasi dengan pelarut methanol. Minyak kemudian diekstraksi dengan menggunakan etanol sebagai solven. Variabel operasi proses esterifikasi adalah suhu reaksi (40; 50; 60°C) dan konsentrasi HCl sebagai katalis (0,5; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5%-v) Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konversi asam lemak bebas menjadi ester meningkat seiring meningkatnya suhu dan katalis. Kondisi optimum adalah 50°C dengan 1,5%-v katalis dimana konversi asam lemak bebas yang diperoleh sebesar 78,33% dan konsentrasi metil ester pada produk sebesar76,89%. Kata kunci: asam lemak bebas, biodiesel, esterifikasi, metanol, minyak dedak padi Abstract Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel which can be made from vegetable oil by trans-etherification, etherification, or etherification-trans etherification process with alcohol. Rice bran oil, one of vegetable oils having high content of free fatty acid, was etherified with methanol in this research. The oil was extracted from rice bran by using methanol as the solvent. The operating variables of the etherification process were temperature (40; 50; 60°C) and concentration of HCl as catalyst for the reaction (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5%-v). The experimental results show that conversion of fatty acid to ether increase as temperature and concentration of the catalyst increase. The optimum condition is 50°C with 1,5%-v catalyst, in which the conversion fatty acid is 78.33% and concentration of methyl ester in the product mixture is 76.89%.

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