Rehabilitation for older people in long-term care.

Academic Unit of Elderly Care and Rehabilitation, University of Leeds, Bradford Institute for Health Research, Temple Bank House, Bradford Royal Infirmary, Bradford, UK, BD9 6RJ.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 02/2009; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004294.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Examination of demographic trends indicates that the worldwide population is progressively ageing. It is expected that such longevity will be associated with an increase in morbidity and demand for long-term residential care. This review examines whether there is evidence that physical rehabilitation benefits older people in long-term care.
To evaluate physical rehabilitation interventions directed at improving physical function among older people in long-term care.
We searched the trials registers of the following Cochrane entities: Stroke Group (searched March 2008), Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (searched August 2006) and the Rehabilitation and Related Therapies Field, (searched August 2006). In addition, we searched 17 relevant electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 October 2007), EMBASE (1980 to 1 October 2007), CINAHL (1982 to 1 October 2007), AMED (1985 to 1 October 2007), PsycINFO (1967 to 1 October 2007) and PEDro (searched 1 October 2007). We also searched trials and research registers and conference proceedings, checked reference lists, and contacted authors and researchers in the field and other relevant Cochrane entities.
Randomised studies comparing a rehabilitation intervention designed to maintain or improve physical function with either no intervention or an alternative intervention in older people aged 60 years or over who have permanent long-term care residency.
Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information.
Forty-nine trials involving 3611 participants were included. On average, 74 (range 12 to 468) participants were randomised into trials at baseline. Of studies which reported age, the overall mean age was 82 years (range of 69 to 89). Most interventions lasted less than 20 weeks, and comprised approximately three 30 to 45-minute group sessions per week. Twelve trials conducted post-intervention follow up (maximum one year). Most often a 'usual care' control group was used, but social activity and alternative interventions also featured. The primary outcome, daily activity restriction, was reported by 38 trials. A range of secondary outcomes are also reported.
Provision of physical rehabilitation interventions to long-term care residents is worthwhile and safe, reducing disability with few adverse events.Most trials reported improvement in physical condition. However, there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations about the best intervention, improvement sustainability and cost-effectiveness.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Older adults who have received inpatient rehabilitation often have significant mobility disability at discharge. Physical activity levels in rehabilitation are also low. It is hypothesized that providing increased physical activity to older people receiving hospital-based rehabilitation will lead to better mobility outcomes at discharge.Methods/DesignA single blind, parallel-group, multisite randomized controlled trial with blinded assessment of outcome and intention-to-treat analysis. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be examined. Older people (age >60 years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation to improve mobility will be recruited from geriatric rehabilitation units at two Australian hospitals. A computer-generated blocked stratified randomization sequence will be used to assign 198 participants in a 1:1 ratio to either an `enhanced physical activity¿ (intervention) group or a `usual care plus¿ (control) group for the duration of their inpatient stay. Participants will receive usual care and either spend time each week performing additional physical activities such as standing or walking (intervention group) or performing an equal amount of social activities that have minimal impact on mobility such as card and board games (control group). Self-selected gait speed will be measured using a 6-meter walk test at discharge (primary outcome) and 6 months follow-up (secondary outcome). The study is powered to detect a 0.1 m/sec increase in self-selected gait speed in the intervention group at discharge. Additional measures of mobility (Timed Up and Go, De Morton Mobility Index), function (Functional Independence Measure) and quality of life will be obtained as secondary outcomes at discharge and tertiary outcomes at 6 months follow-up. The trial commenced recruitment on 28 January 2014.DiscussionThis study will evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of increasing physical activity in older people during inpatient rehabilitation. These results will assist in the development of evidenced-based rehabilitation programs for this population.Trial registrationAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000884707 (Date of registration 08 August 2013); Identifier NCT01910740 (Date of registration 22 July 2013).
    Trials. 01/2015; 16(1):13.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) is not only an important marker of physical impairment, but also a pathway to improve quality of life and enhance cognitive and social functioning of old individuals. Yet, making interventional use of PA training as a means for prevention and enhancement of quality of life of nursing home residents has found very limited attention worldwide so far. That said, the project 'Long-term Care in Motion' (LTCMo) as a part of the INNOVAGE consortium (funded by the European Commission) has the following aims: Overall: Install and assess a socially innovative intervention in the nursing home ecology. Concrete: (a) Conceptualization of a multidimensional intervention program (resident and staff oriented) with the potential to promote PA in nursing home residents; (b) Mixed-methods assessment of the program based on automated recording as well as questionnaire data. LTCMo's PA-related intervention has several components which are applied in parallel manner: (1) Residents are engaged in a physical exercise program that is based on multiple approaches: supervised group sessions, a serious games approach, and specific training in severely impaired persons; (2) Staff members will receive a competence training with a focus on PA motivation and facilitation of residents' PA engagement. Primary outcome assessment (movement-related behavior of residents) is completely conducted by means of automated data collection strategies (accelerometer-based activity recording, sensor-based life space recording). This is enriched by a broad range of secondary outcomes (e.g., cognitive performance, depression of residents; behavioral and attitudinal components of staff). Pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up assessment will take place in the target intervention setting as well as in a waiting control condition in which we will also replicate the training and its assessment in a later step. Although we are faced with methodological challenges (e.g., rather small sample size; no randomized control trial), we believe that our approach has something to offer and indeed has some unique characteristics that may have the potential to contribute to the enhancement of nursing home residents' quality of life and at the same time further PA-related research with vulnerable populations at large. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN96090441. Registered 31 July 2014.
    BMC Geriatrics 01/2014; 14:117. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rheumatologic and geriatric scholarly organisations recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, which emphasise the usefulness of non-pharmacological therapies, are not scaled according to patient's age and physical condition. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on exercise and weight loss in hip and knee osteoarthritis in very old patients. Electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PASCAL database, systematic search of the Cochrane Reviews, manual search in guidelines, meta-analyses and identified relevant articles. We identified 83 trials, with only 2 on patients aged ≥ 75 years; we therefore lowered the mean age threshold to 70 years and found 15 trials, mainly performed in knee osteoarthritis and outpatients. was effective on pain and function (4 controlled trials), with a persistent effect only in case of self-rehabilitation. was as effective as land-based exercise. only patients under diet + exercise had significant improvement on symptoms. Our systematic review confirms that international recommendations on exercise for knee osteoarthritis also apply to subjects aged 70-80 years. Long-term effectiveness requires a maintenance strategy. Specific trials on very old patients with various comorbidities are mandatory, given that these subjects are more exposed to drug-related iatrogenesis.
    The Open Rheumatology Journal 11/2014; 8:89-95.


Available from