Article

Anxiety Disorders in Youth

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
Journal of pediatric nursing (Impact Factor: 0.92). 03/2009; 24(1):26-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2007.08.021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent categories of childhood and adolescent psychopathology. Due to their distressing, time-consuming, and/or debilitating nature, impairments in academic, social, and family functioning are often substantial. This article reviews the nature, etiology, assessment, and treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. We conclude by reviewing implications for nurses involved in the care of youth with anxiety disorders.

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Available from: Eric A Storch, Feb 25, 2015
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    • "Candice , the 8th grader , had devel - opmentally normal fears for a middle school student TABLE 2 . Common fears in childhood ( Keeley & Storch , 2009 ; AACAP , 2007 ) Age range Common fears Infancy Loud noises , being startled , strangers , large objects Toddlers Dark , separating from parents , imaginary creatures , sleeping alone , doctors School - aged children Injury , natural disasters or events ( eg , storms ) Older children and adolescents School performance , social competence , worries about their own and others health . "
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety disorders are among the most common and functionally impairing mental health disorders to occur in childhood and adolescence. Primary care providers can expect to treat youth who have anxiety disorders frequently, and this article aims to provide the tools necessary to evaluate and manage patients who present with anxiety symptoms during childhood or adolescence. This article discusses the epidemiology of anxiety disorders, including the increased risk of future anxiety disorders and other mental health problems that are associated with having an anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence. Next, the etiology of anxiety disorders is delineated, including discussion of genetic, cognitive-behavioral, physiological, and ecological explanatory models, and a summary of neurophysiological findings related to childhood and adolescent anxiety. Next, methods and tools are presented for assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders, with a focus on assessment and treatment that can be initiated in a primary care setting. Evidence-based therapy and medication interventions are reviewed. The article includes a focus on developmental differences in symptom presentation, assessment techniques, and treatment strategies, such that a primary care provider will have tools for working with the wide age range in their practices: preschool children through adolescents. We conclude that many effective intervention strategies exist, and their improving availability and ease of use makes it both critical and achievable for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders to be accurately diagnosed and treated with evidence-based medication and therapy.
    Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care 04/2010; 40(4):66-99. DOI:10.1016/j.cppeds.2010.02.002 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 25% in adults [1] and 4–9% in children [2, 3]. Moreover, many adult anxiety disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence and may have a chronic course [e.g., 4, 5]. They are also highly co-morbid with each other and other psychiatric disorders, especially with mood disorders [e.g., 6] and are associated with high levels of occupational and social impairment [e.g., 7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of anxiety disorders in children with Williams syndrome (WS), their sibling closest in age, and their mothers and to examine the predictors of anxiety in these groups. The prevalence of anxiety disorders was assessed and compared to that in the general population. Children with WS had a significantly higher prevalence of specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and separation anxiety in comparison to children in the general population. While mothers had a higher prevalence of GAD than population controls, the excess was accounted for by mothers who had onset after the birth of their WS child. The siblings had rates similar to the general population. This pattern of findings suggests the presence of a gene in the WS region whose deletion predisposes to anxiety disorders. It is also worthwhile to investigate relations between genes deleted in WS and genes previously implicated in anxiety disorders.
    Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 03/2009; 1(1):4-14. DOI:10.1007/s11689-009-9003-1 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines childhood anxiety disorders as well as their impact on the development of anxiety disorders in adulthood. It also compares the effectiveness of different treatment methods and examines common risk factors, such as family history or genetic influence. This study measures the impact on school performance, social relationships, and other components of daily functioning. Literature suggests that anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive anxiety, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) provides mental health professionals with key symptoms or observable behaviors for the diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. Qualitative methods are used in this study to determine if a relationship exists between childhood anxiety disorders and anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood and to assess which treatment methods seemed effective for most people. Interviews were conducted with a small sample of female college students who have experienced an anxiety disorder. Two of the four women that were interviewed stated that their anxiety problems during childhood carried over into their adult life. Another prevailing pattern that emerged was that each of these women did not recognize that their anxiety was a problem until high school or college. All four women that were interviewed did not receive help until adolescence. School produced a significant amount of anxiety for each of the women that were interviewed. Only one of the four women had a positive experience with medication. Of those who sought counseling, they expressed that seeing a psychologist was easily accessible at their on-campus counseling centers. Only one woman engaged in cognitive behavior therapy with a psychologist. It is evident that genetics and family history are common risk factors, as each woman expressed having at least one other family member with an anxiety disorder. Implications for social work practice include educating teachers and school employees about the signs and behaviors of anxiety disorders. Doing so will result in an earlier diagnosis which allows for immediate treatment. It is imperative for social workers to be aware of the cost efficiency problems surrounding the medications for such disorders, making it possible for better integration of mental health and primary health care.
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