Analysis of RegA, a pathway-specific regulator of the friulimicin biosynthesis in Actinoplanes friuliensis.
ABSTRACT The rare actinomycete Actinoplanes friuliensis is the producer of the lipopeptide antibiotic friulimicin, which is active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Enterococcus spec. and Staphylococcus aureus (MRE, MRSA) strains. Friulimicin consists of a decapeptide core and an acyl residue linked to an exocyclic amino acid. The complete biosynthetic gene cluster consisting of 24 open reading frames was characterized by sequence analysis and the transcription units were subsequently determined by RT-PCR experiments. In addition to several genes for biosynthesis, self-resistance and transport four different regulatory genes (regA, regB, regC and regD) were identified within the cluster. To analyse the role of the pathway-specific regulatory protein RegA in the friulimicin biosynthesis, the corresponding gene was inactivated resulting in friulimicin non-producing mutants. Furthermore, several protein-binding sites within the friulimicin gene cluster were identified by gel retardation assays. By real-time RT-PCR experiments, it was shown that the majority of the friulimicin biosynthetic genes is positively regulated by RegA.