Selective effect of INGAP-PP upon mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation toward islet cells.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the effect of islet neogenesis-associated protein pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP) upon islet beta- and non-beta cell differentiation from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. ES-D3 cell lines were cultured following Lumelsky's protocol with or without INGAP-PP (5 microg/ml) at different stages. Gene expression was quantified using qPCR. mES cells were fixed and immunostained using anti insulin-, somatostatin-, glucagon-, Pdx-1-, Ngn-3-, Nkx-6.1 and PGP9.5 specific antibodies. PCNA was used to measure replication rate. Bcl(2) (immunostaining) and caspase-3 (enzyme activity and gene expression) were determined as apoptosis markers. INGAP-PP increased IAPP, Glut-2, Kir-6.2, SUR-1 and insulin gene expression, and the percentage of insulin-immunostained cells. Conversely, INGAP-PP reduced significantly glucagon and somatostatin gene expression and immunopositivity. While nestin gene expression was not affected, there was a significant reduction in the percentage of PGP9.5-immunostained cells. Pdx-1 gene expression increased by 115% in INGAP-PP treated cells, as well as the percentage of Pdx-1, Ngn-3 and Nkx-6.1 immunopositive cells. Neither caspase-3 (expression and activity) nor Bcl(2) positively immunostained cells were affected by INGAP-PP. Accordingly, INGAP-PP would promote stem cell differentiation into a beta-like cell phenotype, simultaneously decreasing its differentiation toward non-beta-cell precursors. Therefore, INGAP-PP would be potentially useful to obtain beta-cells from stem cells for replacement therapy.
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ABSTRACT: The terms "islet" and "β-cell" are often used interchangeably, yet islets are highly complex multicellular organelles that contain the insulin-producing β-cells and four other cells types, all of which play a role in maintaining glucose homeostasis within a very narrow range. Although the formation of new islets in adults is rare, occurring primarily in response to pancreatic injury and major stress to the pancreas, β-cell replication from existing cells occurs throughout adulthood. An understanding of the regulatory factors controlling pancreatic development has more clearly defined the differences between new islet formation from progenitor cells located throughout the adult pancreas and β-cell replication occurring within existing islets. The present review sets forth to more clearly distinguish the differences between the postnatal pathways of islet neogenesis and β-cell replication with a discussion of the potential implications for reversal of Type 1 and 2 diabetic patients using islet neogenesis agents that are now in development. For Type 1 diabetic patients, an immune tolerance agent in conjunction with an islet neogenesis agent may allow achievement of adequate islet mass, perhaps with subsequent potential to withdraw medications. For Type 2 diabetic patients, lifestyle changes and/or medications may sustain the production of new islets and limit the accelerated β-cell apoptosis characteristic of the condition.Journal of Diabetes 06/2010; 2(2):76-84. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is inhibited in diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats fed a low-antigen hydrolyzed casein (HC) diet. In cereal-fed BBdp rats, islet expansion is defective accompanied by a futile upregulation of islet neogenesis without increased islet mass, due to a subtle blockage in islet cell cycle. We hypothesized that islet growth is enhanced before insulitis in HC-fed young BBdp rats and that islet neogenesis could be stimulated by a trophic factor, islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP). beta-Cell homeostasis was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, morphometry, laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR in BBdp rats fed HC or cereal diets. beta-cell proliferation in small and medium islets, and the number and area fraction of medium and large islets were increased in HC-fed animals. In situ islet cell cycle analysis revealed an increased proportion of proliferating S + G2 cells in medium and large islets of 25-45 day HC-fed rats. Expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p16(INK4a) correlated with islet size and the percentage of p16(INK4a+) beta-cells increased in HC-fed BBdp rats, likely reflecting an increase in large islet area fraction. In HC-fed rats, extra-islet insulin(+) clusters (EIC), insulin(+) duct cells, large islet area fraction, and beta-cell mass were increased. Neurogenin-3 and Pdx-1, markers of beta-cell progenitors, were increased in EIC of weanling HC-fed rats. Daily injection of INGAP (30-45 days) increased the number of small islets, total islets, and insulin(+) cells in small ducts. Thus, in BBdp rats fed a protective HC diet, beta-cell expansion is enhanced through increased beta-cell proliferation and stimulation of islet neogenesis.Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2010; 224(2):501-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a broad potential application in regenerative medicine and can be differentiated into cells of all three germ layers. Adhesion of ES cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is essential for the differentiation pathway; Cell-ECM adhesion is mediated by integrins that have the ability to activate many intracellular signaling pathways. Therefore, we hypothesize that the expression and function of integrin receptors is a critical step in ES differentiation. Using functional cell adhesion assays, our study demonstrates that α5β1 is a major functional integrin receptor expressed on the cell surface of undifferentiated mouse ES-D3 cells, which showed significantly higher binding to fibronectin as compared to collagens. This adhesion was specific mediated by integrin α5β1 as evident from the inhibition with a disintegrin selective for this particular integrin. Differentiation of ES-D3 cells on fibronectin or on a collagen type1/fibronectin matrix, caused further selective up-regulation of the α5β1 integrin. Differentiation of the cells, as evaluated by immunofluorescence, FACS analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, was accompanied by the upregulation of mesenchymal (Flk1, isolectin B4, α-SMA, vimentin) and endodermal markers (FoxA2, SOX 17, cytokeratin) in parallel to increased expression of α5β1 integrin. Taken together, the data indicate that fibronectin-mediated, upregulation of α5β1 integrin and adhesion of ES-D3 cells to specific ECM molecules are linked to early stages of mouse embryonic stem cells commitment to meso-endodermal differentiation.Cell adhesion & migration 01/2011; 5(1):73-82. · 2.34 Impact Factor