Prevalence of dural ectasia in 63 gene-mutation-positive patients with features of Marfan syndrome type 1 and Loeys-Dietz syndrome and report of 22 novel FBN1 mutations.
ABSTRACT Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder involving different organ systems. Marfan syndrome type 1 (MFS1) is caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Heterozygosity for mutations in the TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 genes cause Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) types 2A and 2B that overlap with MFS1 in their clinical features. The phenotype of MFS1 is defined by the Ghent nosology, which classifies the clinical manifestations in major and minor criteria. Dural ectasia is one of the major criteria for Marfan syndrome but it is rarely tested for. We here report 22 novel and 9 recurrent mutations in the FBN1 gene in 36 patients with clinical features of Marfan syndrome. Sixty patients with identified mutations in the FBN1 gene and three patients with mutations in the TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 genes were examined for dural ectasia. Forty-seven of the 60 patients (78%) with MFS1 showed the dural ectasia criterion and 13 (22%) did not. Thirty-three (55%) patients were suspected of having Marfan syndrome and 24 (73%) of them had dural ectasia. Two of the three patients with LDS had dural ectasia.
Article: Long-term clinical outcome and carrier phenotype in autosomal recessive hypophosphatemia caused by a novel DMP1 mutation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homozygous inactivating mutations in DMP1 (dentin matrix protein 1), the gene encoding a noncollagenous bone matrix protein expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, cause autosomal recessive hypophosphatemia (ARHP). Herein we describe a family with ARHP owing to a novel homozygous DMP1 mutation and provide a detailed description of the associated skeletal dysplasia and carrier phenotype. The two adult patients with ARHP, a 78-year-old man and his 66-year-old sister, have suffered from bone pain and lower extremity varus deformities since early childhood. With increasing age, both patients developed severe joint pain, contractures, and complete immobilization of the spine. Radiographs showed short and deformed long bones, significant cranial hyperostosis, enthesopathies, and calcifications of the paraspinal ligaments. Biochemistries were consistent with hypophosphatemia owing to renal phosphate wasting; markers of bone turnover and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels were increased significantly. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DMP1 revealed a novel homozygous mutation at the splice acceptor junction of exon 6 (IVS5-1G > A). Two heterozygous carriers of the mutation also showed mild hypophosphatemia, and bone biopsy in one of these individuals showed focal areas of osteomalacia. In bone, DMP1 expression was absent in the homozygote but normal in the heterozygote, whereas FGF-23 expression was increased in both subjects but higher in the ARHP patient. The clinical and laboratory observations in this family confirm that DMP1 has an important role in normal skeletal development and mineral homeostasis. The skeletal phenotype in ARHP may be significantly more severe than in other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets.Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 04/2010; 25(10):2165-74. · 6.04 Impact Factor