Gait analysis after initial nonoperative treatment for clubfeet: intermediate term followup at age 5.

Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, 2222 Welborn, Dallas, TX 75210, USA.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (Impact Factor: 2.79). 02/2009; 467(5):1206-13. DOI: 10.1007/s11999-008-0702-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We conducted gait analysis following initial nonoperative clubfoot treatment to compare lower extremity kinematic (eg, ankle motion) and kinetic (eg, ankle power) characteristics between patients treated as infants with Ponseti casting or French physical therapy. This is a followup report of gait characteristics at age 5 years in patients who had previously been tested at age 2 years. One hundred-twenty five clubfeet in 90 patients (34 feet only Ponseti treatment, 40 only French PT, and 51 feet initial nonoperative treatment followed by surgery) were included. The gait characteristics were compared to those of age-matched normal control subjects. Ankle equinus during gait occurred in 5% of feet treated with the French method and none of those treated by the Ponseti method. Increased stance phase ankle dorsiflexion persisted in 24% of feet treated by the Ponseti method. Intoeing was seen in 1/3 of both the French and Ponseti methods. Ankle push-off power was decreased compared to normal in patients treated by both methods, and even more so in operated feet. The presence or absence of Achilles tenotomy did not affect ankle power. Gait characteristics of feet that did not have surgery and maintained correction were superior to those of operated feet.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate how clubfeet treated with the Ponseti method compare with control feet in gait analysis and whether additional information can be provided by the Oxford foot model.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 10/2014; 96(19):1593-9. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Relapses following nonoperative treatment for clubfoot occur in 29% to 37% of feet after initial correction. One common gait abnormality is supination and inversion of the foot caused by an imbalance of the anterior tibialis tendon muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if plantar pressures are normalized following an anterior tibialis tendon transfer (ATTT). Methods: Thirty children (37 clubfeet) who underwent an ATTT, were seen for plantar pressure testing preoperatively and postoperatively. Each foot was subdivided into 7 regions: medial/ lateral hindfoot and midfoot, and the forefoot (first, second, and third to fifth metatarsal heads). Variables included: contact time as a percentage of stance time (CT%), contact area as a percentage of the total foot (CA%), peak pressure (PP), hindfoot- forefoot angle (H-F), location of initial contact, and deviation of the center-of-pressure line (COP). Paired t tests were used for group comparisons, whereas multiple comparisons were assessed with ANOVA (a set to 0.05 with Bonferroni correction). Results: Significant changes were seen in preoperative to postoperative comparison. PP, CT%, and CA% had significant increases in the medial hindfoot, midfoot, and first metatarsal regions, whereas the involvement of the lateral midfoot and forefoot were reduced. Compared with controls, postoperative results following ATTT continue to show increased PP, CA%, and CT% in the lateral midfoot, increased CA% and CT% in the lateral forefoot, whereas CA% was decreased in the first metatarsal region. Compared with controls, the COP line continues to move laterally and the H-F angle continues to show forefoot adductus following ATTT. No differences were found between patients treated with an isolated ATTT and those treated with concomitant procedures. Conclusions: The changes seen in plantar pressures following ATTT would suggest that the foot is better aligned for a more even distribution of pressure throughout the foot, but is not fully normalized.
    Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 01/2014; 35(5):522-8. · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal was to evaluate the use of Ponseti's method, with minor adaptations, in the treatment of idiopathic clubfeet presenting in children between five and ten years of age. A retrospective review was performed in 36 children (55 feet) with a mean age of 7.4 years (5 to 10), supplemented by digital images and video recordings of gait. There were 19 males and 17 females. The mean follow-up was 31.5 months (24 to 40). The mean number of casts was 9.5 (6 to 11), and all children required surgery, including a percutaneous tenotomy or open tendo Achillis lengthening (49%), posterior release (34.5%), posterior medial soft-tissue release (14.5%), or soft-tissue release combined with an osteotomy (2%). The mean dorsiflexion of the ankle was 9° (0° to 15°). Forefoot alignment was neutral in 28 feet (51%) or adducted (< 10°) in 20 feet (36%), > 10° in seven feet (13%). Hindfoot alignment was neutral or mild valgus in 26 feet (47%), mild varus (< 10°) in 19 feet (35%), and varus (> 10°) in ten feet (18%). Heel-toe gait was present in 38 feet (86%), and 12 (28%) exhibited weight-bearing on the lateral border (out of a total of 44 feet with gait videos available for analysis). Overt relapse was identified in nine feet (16%, six children). The parents of 27 children (75%) were completely satisfied. A plantigrade foot was achieved in 46 feet (84%) without an extensive soft-tissue release or bony procedure, although under-correction was common, and longer-term follow-up will be required to assess the outcome. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:1721-5.
    The bone & joint journal. 12/2013; 95-B(12):1721-5.

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