Characterization of PKD protein-positive exosome-like vesicles.

Division of Nephrology & Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 9.47). 02/2009; 20(2):278-88. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2008060564
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proteins associated with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (polycystin-1, polycystin-2, and fibrocystin) localize to various subcellular compartments, but their functional site is thought to be on primary cilia. PC1+ vesicles surround cilia in Pkhd1(del2/del2) mice, which led us to analyze these structures in detail. We subfractionated urinary exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) and isolated a subpopulation abundant in polycystin-1, fibrocystin (in their cleaved forms), and polycystin-2. This removed Tamm-Horsfall protein, the major contaminant, and subfractionated ELVs into at least three different populations, demarcated by the presence of aquaporin-2, polycystin-1, and podocin. Proteomic analysis of PKD ELVs identified 552 proteins (232 not yet in urinary proteomic databases), many of which have been implicated in signaling, including the molecule Smoothened. We also detected two other protein products of genes involved in cystic disease: Cystin, the product of the mouse cpk locus, and ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6, the product of the human Bardet-Biedl syndrome gene (BBS3). Our proteomic analysis confirmed that cleavage of polycystin-1 and fibrocystin occurs in vivo, in manners consistent with cleavage at the GPS site in polycystin-1 and the proprotein convertase site in fibrocystin. In vitro, these PKD ELVs preferentially interacted with primary cilia of kidney and biliary epithelial cells in a rapid and highly specific manner. These data suggest that PKD proteins are shed in membrane particles in the urine, and these particles interact with primary cilia.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in progressive renal cyst formation with ultimate loss of renal function and other systemic disorders. These systemic disorders include abnormalities in cardiovascular, portal, pancreatic and gastrointestinal systems. ADPKD is considered to be among the ciliopathy diseases due to the association with abnormal primary cilia function. In order to understand the full course of primary cilia and its association with ADPKD, the structure, functions and role of primary cilia have been meticulously investigated. As a result, the focus on primary cilia has emerged to support the vital roles of primary cilia in ADPKD. The primary cilia have been shown to have not only a mechanosensory function but also a chemosensory function. Both structural and functional defects in primary cilia result in cystic kidney disease and vascular hypertension. Thus, the mechanosenory and chemosensory functions will be analyzed in regards to ADPKD.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As in several body fluids, urine is a rich reservoir of extracellular vesicles (EVs) directly originating from cells facing the urinary lumen, including differentiated tubular cells, progenitor cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells. Several markers of glomerular and tubular damage, such as WT-1, ATF3 and NGAL, as well as of renal regeneration, such as CD133, have been identified representing an incredible source of information for diagnostic purposes. In addition, urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) appear to be involved in the cell-to-cell communication along the nephron, although this aspect needs further elucidation. Finally, uEVs emerge as potential amplifying or limiting factors in renal damage. Vesicles from injured cells may favour fibrosis and disease progression whereas those from cells with regenerative potential appear to promote cell survival. Here, we will discuss the most recent findings of the literature, on the light of the role of EVs in diagnosis and therapy for damage and repair of the renal tissue.
    02/2015; 8(1):23-30. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfu136
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most cells physiologically release vesicles as way of intercellular communication. The so-called Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) include exosomes, ectosomes, and apoptotic bodies, which basically differ in their composition and subcellular origin. Specifically, EVs found in urine reflect the state of the urinary system, from podocytes to renal-tubular cells, thus making them an excellent source of samples for the study of kidney physiology and pathology. Several groups have focused on defining biomarkers of kidney-related disorders, from graft rejection to metabolic syndromes. So far, the lack of a standard protocol for EVs isolation precludes the possibility of a proper comparison among the different biomarkers proposed in the literature, stressing the need for validation of these biomarkers not only in larger cohorts of patients but also considering the different methods for EVs isolation. In this review, we aim to gather the current knowledge about EVs-related biomarkers in kidney diseases, with a special emphasis in the methods used to date for EVs enrichment, and discussing the need for more specific protocols of EV isolation in clinical practice.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2015; 6:6. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00006

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014