Mood Influences Supraspinal Pain Processing Separately from Attention

Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 02/2009; 29(3):705-15. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3822-08.2009
Source: PubMed


Studies show that inducing a positive mood or diverting attention from pain decreases pain perception. Nevertheless, induction manipulations, such as viewing interesting movies or performing mathematical tasks, often influence both emotional and attentional states. Imaging studies have examined the neural basis of psychological pain modulation, but none has explicitly separated the effects of emotion and attention. Using odors to modulate mood and shift attention from pain, we previously showed that the perceptual consequences of changing mood differed from those of altering attention, with mood primarily altering pain unpleasantness and attention preferentially altering pain intensity. These findings suggest that brain circuits involved in pain modulation provoked by mood or attention are partially separable. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to directly compare the neurocircuitry involved in mood- and attention-related pain modulation. We manipulated independently mood state and attention direction, using tasks involving heat pain and pleasant and unpleasant odors. Pleasant odors, independent of attentional focus, induced positive mood changes and decreased pain unpleasantness and pain-related activity within the anterior cingulate (ACC), medial thalamus, and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. The effects of attentional state were less robust, with only the activity in anterior insular cortex (aIC) showing possible attentional modulation. Lateral inferior frontal cortex [LinfF; Brodmann's area (BA) 45/47] activity correlated with mood-related modulation, whereas superior posterior parietal (SPP; BA7) and entorhinal activity correlated with attention-related modulation. ACC activity covaried with LinfF and periacqueductal gray activity, whereas aIC activity covaried with SPP activity. These findings suggest that separate neuromodulatory circuits underlie emotional and attentional modulation of pain.

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    • "Several studies have suggested that the analgesic effect of music (or musicinduced analgesia) may be secondary to cognitive and emotional effects that arise from listening to music: distraction from the pain, pleasantness, and pleasure, memory evoked emotions and relaxation (Mitchell et al., 2006; Juslin and Västfjäll, 2008; Roy et al., 2008, 2009; Wiech and Tracey, 2009; Bernatzky et al., 2011; Salimpoor et al., 2011). Distraction is a well-known cognitive analgesic mechanism (Tracey et al., 2002; Villemure and Bushnell, 2009) that is present when listening to music. Also, listening to music has been related to dopamine release from the caudate and the nucleus accumbens (Salimpoor et al., 2011), and dopamine itself is know to have a role in central analgesia (Wood, 2008). "
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    Frontiers in Psychology 02/2014; 5:90. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00090 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "The largely independent encoding, modulation [51], and brain networks for [52] sensory (pain intensity) and affective (pain unpleasantness) dimensions of pain suggest that it is a multidimensional response system that differentially encodes both qualities. Furthermore, psychological interventions involving emotions (such as cognitive behavioural therapy) modulate perceived pain unpleasantness more than perceived intensity of pain [53], whereas therapies involving distraction seem to modulate more directly perceived intensity of pain and not mood [54,55]. If we transfer this analogy to tinnitus, this means that sensory (percept) and affective (distress) dimensions of tinnitus would be separable. "
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    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82995. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082995 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Psychological variables such as pain catastrophizing, anxiety and depression are known to influence the perception of pain [1]–[7]. Recently, both psychological traits and states and pain conditions have been correlated with neurotransmitter systems, and it has been suggested that interindividual differences in the expression of psychological factors and pain perception are based on genetic variations [8]–[10]. "
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    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78889. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078889 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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