Mi2beta shows chromatin enzyme specificity by erasing a DNase I-hypersensitive site established by ACF.
ABSTRACT ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes are linked to changes in gene expression; however, it is not clear how the multiple remodeling enzymes found in eukaryotes differ in function and work together. In this report, we demonstrate that the ATP-dependent remodeling enzymes ACF and Mi2beta can direct consecutive, opposing chromatin-remodeling events, when recruited to chromatin by different transcription factors. In a cell-free system based on the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, we show that TFE3 induces a DNase I-hypersensitive site in an ATP-dependent reaction that requires ACF following transcription factor binding to chromatin. In a second step, PU.1 directs Mi2beta to erase an established DNase I-hypersensitive site, in an ATP-dependent reaction subsequent to PU.1 binding to chromatin, whereas ACF will not support erasure. Erasure occurred without displacing the transcription factor that initiated the site. Other tested enzymes were unable to erase the DNase I-hypersensitive site. Establishing and erasing the DNase I-hypersensitive site required transcriptional activation domains from TFE3 and PU.1, respectively. Together, these results provide important new mechanistic insight into the combinatorial control of chromatin structure.
- SourceAvailable from: Fred Sablitzky[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have assessed the importance of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) intron enhancer for recombination of variable gene segments (V, D and J) during B cell development. We generated chimeric mice with embryonic stem cells lacking the intron enhancer from one of their IgH loci. The IgH intron enhancer was substituted by a short oligonucleotide through homologous recombination using the 'Hit and Run' procedure. V(D)J recombination occurred less frequently on mutant alleles, but was not blocked completely. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that 15-30% of the mutated loci in mature B cells were unrearranged, in striking contrast to the wild-type alleles. The remainder of the mutated loci underwent D-J (65-80%) as well as V-DJ rearrangements, although the latter were less frequent (3-6%). These results are in line with previous data which showed that the V(D)J recombination machinery is modulated through cis-regulatory elements within the intron enhancer. However, our data predict the existence of additional cis-regulatory element(s) which, together with the intron enhancer, are required to activate the V(D)J recombination machinery fully. Such cis-regulatory element(s) might function as an enhancer of recombination or as a locus control region regulating the accessibility of the IgH locus.The EMBO Journal 07/1993; 12(6):2321-7. · 9.82 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The developmental programme of embryogenesis is controlled by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. An emerging theme from recent studies is that the regulation of higher-order chromatin structures by DNA methylation and histone modification is crucial for genome reprogramming during early embryogenesis and gametogenesis, and for tissue-specific gene expression and global gene silencing. Disruptions to chromatin modification can lead to the dysregulation of developmental processes, such as X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting, and to various diseases. Understanding the process of epigenetic reprogramming in development is important for studies of cloning and the clinical application of stem-cell therapy.Nature Reviews Genetics 10/2002; 3(9):662-73. · 41.06 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: TFE3 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZIP) domain-containing protein that binds mu E3 sites in regulatory elements in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. The protein is a transcriptional activator that is expressed in vivo as two alternately spliced isoforms with different activating properties: TFE3L contains an N-terminal acidic activation domain; TFE3S lacks this activation domain and is a dominant negative inhibitor of TFE3L. We show that TFE3L and TFE3S contain a second, C-terminal activation domain rich in proline residues. This pro-rich activation domain has activity in a Gal4 fusion assay comparable to the N-terminal acidic activation domain present in TFE3L. The TFE3 pro-rich activation domain contains regions of strong homology with the related proteins microphthalmia and TFEB, suggesting that these regions are important for function. Using two different assays, we show that the N- and C-terminal activation domains of TFE3 act synergistically. This synergism explains in part the ability of TFE3S to act as a dominant negative. Our domain analysis of TFE3 is incorporated into a general structural model for the TFE3 protein that predicts that the activation domains of TFE3 will be widely separated in space.Nucleic Acids Research 11/1995; 23(19):3865-71. · 8.28 Impact Factor