Mi2beta shows chromatin enzyme specificity by erasing a DNase I-hypersensitive site established by ACF.
ABSTRACT ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes are linked to changes in gene expression; however, it is not clear how the multiple remodeling enzymes found in eukaryotes differ in function and work together. In this report, we demonstrate that the ATP-dependent remodeling enzymes ACF and Mi2beta can direct consecutive, opposing chromatin-remodeling events, when recruited to chromatin by different transcription factors. In a cell-free system based on the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, we show that TFE3 induces a DNase I-hypersensitive site in an ATP-dependent reaction that requires ACF following transcription factor binding to chromatin. In a second step, PU.1 directs Mi2beta to erase an established DNase I-hypersensitive site, in an ATP-dependent reaction subsequent to PU.1 binding to chromatin, whereas ACF will not support erasure. Erasure occurred without displacing the transcription factor that initiated the site. Other tested enzymes were unable to erase the DNase I-hypersensitive site. Establishing and erasing the DNase I-hypersensitive site required transcriptional activation domains from TFE3 and PU.1, respectively. Together, these results provide important new mechanistic insight into the combinatorial control of chromatin structure.
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ABSTRACT: Chromatin is by its very nature a repressive environment which restricts the recruitment of transcription factors and acts as a barrier to polymerases. Therefore the complex process of gene activation must operate at two levels. In the first instance, localized chromatin decondensation and nucleosome displacement is required to make DNA accessible. Second, sequence-specific transcription factors need to recruit chromatin modifiers and remodellers to create a chromatin environment that permits the passage of polymerases. In this review I will discuss the chromatin structural changes that occur at active gene loci and at regulatory elements that exist as DNase I hypersensitive sites.FEBS Journal 07/2011; 278(13):2182-210. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the best studied systems for mammalian chromatin remodeling is transcriptional regulation during T cell development. The variety of these studies have led to important findings in T cell gene regulation and cell fate determination. Importantly, these findings have also advanced our knowledge of the function of remodeling enzymes in mammalian gene regulation. First we briefly present biochemical and cell-free analysis of 3 types of ATP dependent remodeling enzymes (SWI/SNF, Mi2, and ISWI) to construct an intellectual framework to understand how these enzymes might be working. Second, we compare and contrast the function of these enzymes during early (thymic) and late (peripheral) T cell development. Finally, we examine some of the gaps in our present understanding.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 10/2011; 90(1):1-13. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A dynamical system model is presented in this paper for genetic regulatory networks with hybrid regulatory mechanism. The sufficient conditions for the stability of the proposed model are established based on the Lyapunov functional method and linear matrix inequality techniques. To test the effectiveness and correctness of our theoretical results, illustrative examples regarding modified repressilator and modified 5-node genetic network models are also presented.Arabian Journal of Mathematics. 01/2012; 1(3).