Gender affects liver desaturase expression in a rat model of n-3 fatty acid repletion.
ABSTRACT Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of cell membranes and have beneficial effects on human health. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the most biologically important n-3 PUFA and can be synthesized from its dietary essential precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3). Gender differences in the efficiency of DHA bioconversion have been reported, but underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. We compared the capacity for DHA synthesis from ALA and the expression of related enzymes in the liver and cerebral cortex between male and female rats. Wistar rats, born with a low-DHA status, were supplied with a suboptimal amount of ALA from weaning to 8 weeks of age. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography, the mRNA expression of different genes involved in PUFA metabolism was determined by RT-PCR (low-density array) and the expression of proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. At 8 weeks, DHA content was higher (+20 to +40%) in each phospholipid class of female livers compared to male livers. The "Delta4," Delta5 and Delta6 desaturation indexes were 1.2-3 times higher in females than in males. The mRNA expression of Delta5- and Delta6-desaturase genes was 3.8 and 2.5 times greater, respectively, and the Delta5-desaturase protein was higher in female livers (+50%). No gender difference was observed in the cerebral cortex. We conclude that female rats replete their DHA status more readily than males, probably due to a higher expression of liver desaturases. Our results support the hypothesis on hormonal regulation of PUFA metabolism, which should be taken into account for specific nutritional recommendations.
Article: Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins) often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced). It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high) directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct costs for the farming sector.Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2011; 10:16. · 2.17 Impact Factor