Violent offenses associated with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems: Evidence from CJDATS

Center for the Integration of Research and Practice, National Development and Research Institutes, New York, NY 10010, USA.
Behavioral Sciences & the Law (Impact Factor: 0.96). 01/2009; 27(1):51-69. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.850
Source: PubMed


The present study examines the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and violence in a sample of offenders released from prison and referred to substance abuse treatment programs. Data from 34 sites (n = 1,349) in a federally funded cooperative, the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS), were analyzed. Among parolees referred to substance abuse treatment, self-reports for the six-month period before the arrest resulting in their incarceration revealed frequent problems with both substance use and mental health. For most offenders with substance use problems, the quantity of alcohol consumed and the frequency of drug use were associated with a greater probability of self-reported violence. Mental health problems were not indicative of increases in violent behavior, with the exception of antisocial personality problems, which were associated with violence. The paper emphasizes the importance of providing substance abuse treatment in relation to violent behavior among offenders with mental health problems being discharged to the community.

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Available from: Charles M Cleland, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Dutch researchers found that an individual's criminal behavior tended to grow increasingly violent over time; this finding was attributed to a combination of psychopathology and poor social skills (Geest, Blokland, & Bijleveld, 2009). Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, particularly in combination with SUDs, are also thought to contribute to violent behaviors (Fazel, Lichtenstein, Grann, Goodwin, & Langstrom, 2010; Sacks et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study used baseline data on recently released paroled men who are homeless (N=157), residing in a residential drug treatment program, and enrolled in a longitudinal study to examine personal, developmental, and social correlates of parolees who are homeless and who have committed serious violent offenses. Having experienced childhood sexual abuse, poor parental relationships, and early-onset incarceration (prior to 21 years of age) were important correlates of serious violent crimes. These findings highlight the need for interventions that address offenders' prior adult and childhood victimization and suggest that policies for reentering violent offenders should encompass an understanding of the broader family contexts in which these patterns of maltreatment often occur.
    Violence and Victims 10/2012; 27(5):793-810. DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.27.5.793 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Substantially higher rates of suicidal behavior and abuse history among the SUPM group was also congruent with current conceptualizations of COD risk factors (Dalton, Cate-Carter, Mundo, Parikh, & Kennedy, 2003; Kelly, Cornelius, & Lynch, 2002; Messina, Burdon, Hagopian, & Prendergast, 2004; Sacks et al., 2009). Group differences in reported gross income, with SUPM and SUD offenders reporting lower income than controls, were likewise consistent with prior studies on demographic differences among persons with and without COD (Sacks et al., 2009). Our study further suggested that SUPM offenders were least likely to be uninsured, partly because they were more likely to have government-aided insurance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Co-occurring substance abuse and mental illness is prevalent among criminal offenders, but little is known about risk factors for these co-occurring disorders (COD) in community corrections population. To identify risk factors for COD in community corrections offenders, we analyzed assessment data from 5,595 offenders maintained under community supervision at a substance use diversion program. Three groups, offenders with substance use disorders who were taking psychotropic medications (SUPM), offenders with a substance use disorder (SUD) only and controls were compared. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of SUPM versus SUD only and controls. SUPM status was predicted by being White or Female, having some medical insurance (private or government aided), being unemployed, prior history of abuse/trauma, and prior history of suicidal ideation or behavior. Offenders with substance use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric problems face salient social risk that may need to be targeted through integrated services.
    Addictive behaviors 07/2011; 36(7):755-8. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.033 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Some studies have suggested that the combination of mental illness with substance abuse and non-compliance with medication increases the risk of violent behavior and CJS involvement beyond the risk that is directly due to either mental illness or substance abuse alone (Steadman et al. 1998; Elbogen and Johnson 2009; Rasanen et al. 1998). However, Sacks et al. (2009) found that co-occurring disorders generally did not increase the risk of violence beyond the main effects of specific mental disorders. Other studies that have addressed this issue appear not to have investigated the degree to which the risk of violence increased above and beyond the risk engendered by the main effects of mental health and substance abuse diagnoses by themselves (Swanson et al. 1996) or only examined how substance abuse increased the risk of violence among individuals with a mental illness (Cuffel et al. 1994; Fulwiler et al. 1997; Swanson et al. 2006; Swartz et al. 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing concern that people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses are increasingly at risk for unnecessary criminal justice system (CJS) involvement. There has been limited examination, however, of which individual characteristics predict future CJS involvement. This study uses data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness on sociodemograhic characteristics, baseline clinical status, and service use among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia to prospectively identify predictors of CJS involvement during the following year. A series of bivariate chi-square and F tests were conducted to examine whether significant relationships existed between CJS involvement during the first 12 months of the trial and baseline measures of sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric status, substance abuse, and other patient characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then used to identify the independent strength of the relationship between 12-month CJS involvement and potential risk factors that were found to be significant in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that past adolescent conduct disorder, being younger and male, symptoms of Akathisia (movement disorder, most often develops as a side effect of antipsychotic medications), and particularly drug abuse increase the risk for CJS involvement. Since CJS involvement among people with schizophrenia was most strongly associated with drug abuse, treatment of co-morbid drug abuse could reduce the risk of stigma, pain, and other adverse consequences of CJS involvement as well as save CJS expenditures.
    Community Mental Health Journal 11/2010; 47(6):727-36. DOI:10.1007/s10597-010-9362-9 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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