The question of whether alcohol drinking is a risk factor for fatty liver as shown by ultrasonography was investigated by both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches in Japanese undergoing a health checkup. In this cross-sectional study, 32,438 males (49.0 +/- 11.9 years old) and 31,009 females (48.2 +/- 11.6 years old) receiving a health checkup from 2000 to 2005 were included. Longitudinally, 5,444 males (49.8 +/- 10.7 years old) and 4,980 females (50.4 +/- 9.3 years old) participating in both 2000 and 2005 were included. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for both sexes, adjusted for age, BMI, and smoking. The prevalence of fatty liver in non-, occasional, daily moderate, and daily heavy drinkers was 28.5, 27.5, 18.7, and 19.1% in men and 12.4, 7.7, 5.4, and 6.7% in women, respectively (inverse association, P < or = 0.05 for both). Occasional, daily moderate, and daily heavy drinking in men and occasional and daily moderate drinking in women were inversely associated with fatty liver in the cross-sectional study. Daily moderate and heavy drinking appeared protective in men in the longitudinal study. Alcohol drinking may not be a major risk for fatty liver in Japanese undergoing a health checkup.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The question of whether fatty liver might predict impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes mellitus in a longitudinal manner was assessed in Japanese subjects undergoing a health checkup.
A total of 12 375 individuals (6799 men and 5576 women) without hyperglycemia or type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2000 and participating in 2005 were included. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for both sexes, adjusted for age, body mass index, elevated blood pressure or hypertension, family history of diabetes mellitus, alcohol drinking and smoking.
Impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus were newly diagnosed in 7.6% and 1.0% of men and 3.8% and 0.5% of women, respectively, within the 5-year period. The prevalence of newly diagnosed impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in the participants with fatty liver than without fatty liver in both sexes. Fatty liver adjusted for the other factors was thus a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus in both sexes (men odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56-2.34 and women OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.53-3.01). The impact of fatty liver was stronger among the participants with a lower body mass index (men OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99 and women OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, for one increment of body mass index).
Fatty liver is an independent risk factor for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus, having a stronger impact in those Japanese with a lower body mass index undergoing a health checkup.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2009; 25(2):352-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05998.x · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver-protective effects of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption have been suggested.
To determine predictors of ALT elevation in asymptomatic subjects with and without ultrasonographical evidence of fatty liver.
Cross-sectional survey of 9703 healthy males. Exclusion criteria were HBV or HCV infection, any use of hepatotoxic medication, history of alcohol abuse, chronic renal or hepatic failure, or treatment for metabolic disorders. Presence of fatty liver was evaluated by ultrasonography; visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was measured by computed tomography (CT).
7148 males (mean age, 50.3±7.8 years) were included; 2406 (33.7%) had fatty liver at ultrasonography. ALT was elevated in 163 (3.4%) and 554 subjects (23.0%) of fatty liver-negative and fatty liver-positive subgroups, respectively. Light (40-140g/week) alcohol consumption was significantly and independently associated with reduced prevalence of ALT elevation in the fatty liver-negative subgroup (OR=0.568, 95% CI=0.342-0.943, P=0.029). ALT elevation was significantly related to age, VAT, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) in the fatty liver-negative subgroup.
Light alcohol consumption is not associated with serum ALT elevation in the Japanese male population. Metabolic syndrome factors are significantly associated with prevalence of ALT elevation, irrespective of the presence of fatty liver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol is considered to be a major cause of fatty liver (FL). In contrast, however, recent investigations have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is protective against FL. To clarify the role of alcohol consumption in FL development, we examined the association between drinking patterns and FL prevalence.
We enrolled 9,886 male participants at regular medical health checks. Each subject's history of alcohol consumption was determined by questionnaire. The subjects were classified according to alcohol consumption as non-, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers (0, <20, 20-59, and ≥60 g/day, respectively). FL was defined by ultrasonography. Independent predictors of FL were determined by logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of FL displayed a "U-shaped curve" across the categories of daily alcohol consumption (non-, 44.7%; light, 39.3%; moderate, 35.9%; heavy drinkers, 40.1%; P < 0.001). The prevalence of FL was associated positively with body mass index and other obesity-related diseases and inversely with alcohol consumption (light, odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.86; moderate, OR 0.55, CI 0.45-0.67; heavy, OR 0.44, CI 0.32-0.62) as determined by multivariate analysis after adjusting for potential confounding variables. In addition, examination of drinking patterns (frequency and volume) revealed that the prevalence of FL was inversely associated with the frequency of alcohol consumption (≥21 days/month) (OR 0.62, CI 0.53-0.71) but not with the volume of alcohol consumed.
Our observations suggest that alcohol consumption plays a protective role against FL in men, and consistent alcohol consumption may contribute to this favorable effect.
Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2010; 46(4):519-28. DOI:10.1007/s00535-010-0336-z · 4.52 Impact Factor
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