Relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity among patients with type 2 diabetes
ABSTRACT While previous studies indicate a significant relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity, less research has focused on this relationship among patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between participation in a 1-month, print-based physical activity intervention and improvements in activity levels.
Participants (N = 85; mean age = 57; 73% Caucasian; 69% female) were recruited from a community diabetes center. The intervention was individually-tailored based on theoretical constructs, including self-efficacy.
After controlling for age, baseline activity, and baseline self-efficacy, the tailored intervention was associated with significant improvements in physical activity, 95% CI [23.01, 271.68] as well as self-efficacy, CI [0.02, 3.48]. There was an indirect effect of treatment on physical activity through self-efficacy, CI [0.77, 73.11], and the direct effect of treatment on physical activity was no longer significant, CI [-7.33, 253.40], after the influences of self-efficacy change were accounted for in the model.
Results supported a mediation effect, such that the treatment effect on physical activity was completely mediated by changes in self-efficacy. Although replication is needed, results support the theoretical rationale for targeting self-efficacy to promote physical activity among patients with type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Sedentarism is a serious health concern in industrialized countries throughout the world. We examined whether a text message-based intervention, targeted at increasing daily levels of physical activity, would be more effective than a standard psychoeducational intervention and a control condition. Sixty-three individuals (43 women) with a mean age of 23.7 years participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to a psychoeducational standard intervention; an augmented intervention with additional short text messages sent to the mobile phones to remind participants of their action plans, and a control condition. Objectively assessed physical activity and self-efficacy were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Participants in the control condition showed a significant decline in physical activity from pre-assessment to post-assessment, whereas participants in both intervention arms exhibited a slight increase. Moreover, the augmented intervention resulted in a marginally significant increase in self-efficacy, whereas the standard intervention resulted in a significant decrease. The findings suggest that short text messages reminding individuals of their action plans are not more effective than an intervention without text messages, although there seems to be a beneficial effect on self-efficacy, which might facilitate behavior change in the long-term. Challenging aspects of the research design (e.g., reactivity of the assessment protocol) are discussed and suggestions for future research are highlighted.Frontiers in Psychology 08/2012; 3:270. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00270 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: oftedal b, bru e & karlsen b (2011) Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness 3, 12–22 Social support as a motivator of self-management among adults with type 2 diabetesAim. This paper is a report of research on how people with type 2 diabetes perceive social support, how social support is associated with diet and exercise management, and the degree to which these relationships are mediated by the expectations people with type 2 diabetes have of their own ability.Background. Many people with type 2 diabetes have difficulties in motivating themselves to self-manage diet and exercise. It has been suggested that the social support provided by healthcare practitioners, family and friends may be an essential contributor in motivating people with type 2 diabetes to adopt and maintain diet and exercise management. However, there has been little research to explore how social support interacts with motivation in the self-management of type 2 diabetes.Methods. This study had a cross-sectional design. The data were collected by a postal questionnaire assessing perceived social support as well as ability expectations, diet and exercise management. A sample comprising 425 adults aged 30–70 years with type 2 diabetes completed the questionnaire. The data were collected during September/October 2008.Results. The descriptive results showed that the majority of the participants reported constructive support from healthcare practitioners, whereas relatively few felt they had support from family and friends. Only modest associations were found between social support and self-management. Some of the associations, however, were mediated by ability expectations. Associations of variables assessing social support with diet management were strongest among those who had the disease <6 years.Conclusions and relevance to clinical practice. Findings indicate that it is important for healthcare practitioners to consider the balance between empathic, non-confrontational and confrontational approaches. For some people with type 2 diabetes, a more confrontational approach could be appropriate. They should also be aware that stimulating self-management is challenging and complex and may depend on tailor-made and ongoing support. Finally, findings suggest there is room for improvement in support from family and friends.Journal of Nursing and Healthcare of Chronic Illness 02/2011; 3(1):12 - 22. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-9824.2010.01074.x
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ABSTRACT: We investigated exercise effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and exercise self-efficacy, and tested effect modification by baseline body mass index (BMI) and gender. Middle-aged women (n=100) and men (n=102) were randomly assigned to either exercise (360 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise) or control in Seattle, WA, from 2001 to 2004. Demographics, anthropometrics, exercise self-efficacy (5-item self-efficacy questionnaire) and HRQOL (SF-36) were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Analysis of covariance adjusting for baseline scores was used to compare HRQOL and exercise self-efficacy scores between the exercise and control groups. At 12 months, exercisers demonstrated higher exercise self-efficacy than controls (percent change from baseline: -6.5% vs. -15.0%, p < 0.01), without differences in HRQOL. Baseline BMI category and gender did not modify these effects. In exploratory analyses comparing exercisers and controls within subgroups defined by gender and BMI, 12-month HRQOL scores [role-physical (+7.0% vs. -13.1%), vitality (+15.6% vs. -4.2%), social functioning (+10.0% vs. -3.5%), and mental health (+6.8% vs. -2.9%)] were higher only among overweight male exercisers (p < 0.05, vs. control). Three hundred and sixty minutes per week of exercise, recommended for weight maintenance, did not have negative effects on exercise self-efficacy or HRQOL. This level of exercise may increase HRQOL among overweight men.Preventive Medicine 02/2011; 52(5):344-51. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.02.016 · 2.93 Impact Factor