Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a major public health problem in the United States, with the incidence of disease and its associated complications having significantly increased in the adolescent and adult populations. These populations serve as the major transmission source of the disease to young infants, a group that is at the highest risk of severe morbidity and mortality from the disease. Studies have shown that new parents, especially mothers, are the source of disease transmission in more than 50% of the cases. Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis booster vaccines (Tdap) are licensed for use in adolescent and adult populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that the Tdap vaccine be given to postpartum women as soon as possible after delivery and before hospital discharge to protect them and their newborns against pertussis disease. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that its membership follow the CDC recommendations. This article includes a further discussion of the rationale for this recommendation and provides possible strategies for vaccine implementation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pertussis is an acute infectious illness, caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis and commonly known as "whooping cough". Waning immunity after vaccination or after natural infection contributes significantly to the increasing incidence rates in adolescents and adults. Prevention of pertussis in industrialized countries is mainly based on immunization with acellular vaccines in combination with other antigens. A booster dose with an adult-formulation tetanus-diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is now recommended for all adolescents by several countries, and replacement of the decennial Td dose with a single or more doses of Tdap is recommended for adults.
Our review aims at describing the current knowledge on the impact of acellular pertussis vaccination in adolescents and adults, with particular focus on specific risk groups: adolescents, pregnant women and their newborns, and health care workers (HCWs), and secondly at suggesting possible immunization strategies.
Data were retrieved by searches of Pubmed, references, from relevant articles and open-access websites.
In countries where an adolescent booster dose was adopted, a certain decrease of incidence rates was observed. No serologic correlate of protection after immunization exists, but subjects with high antibody levels against pertussis antigens are less likely to develop the disease. Tdap vaccine was demonstrated to induce antibodies to pertussis antigens exceeding those associated with efficacy in infants, in both adolescents and adults. Tdap use in pregnant women seems to be safe and might represent a useful tool in order to prevent pertussis cases in the first months of life. Neonatal immunization with monovalent acellular pertussis vaccine can efficiently prime T and B cells and act as a basis for future immune responses. Cocooning strategies involving all those surrounding newborns have started to be implemented. Their impact on infant pertussis cases will be evaluated in the coming years. Coverage in HCWs should be increased, given their important role in pertussis transmission in health care settings.
Despite the more recent position paper of WHO gives priority to infant and childhood vaccination against pertussis and leaves adolescent, adult and risk group immunization as an option for the future, data are quickly accumulating to support the need to consider pertussis vaccination as a crucial preventative intervention even in adolescents and special risk groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite official recommendations in 2004, antipertussis vaccine coverage in post-partum remains low. Measures used to date to improve the appliance of these recommendations were not implemented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a strategy of education and systematic prescription of antipertussis vaccine, on immunization coverage of mothers in the post-partum.
This was an analytical, interventional, monocentric study conducted on delivered patients, hospitalized between July 10th and 31st, 2009 in our establishment. Oral (twice: midwife and doctor) and written information about pertussis and order of vaccine were delivered in post-partum.
No patient had reliable information on her vaccination status during hospitalization. According to the patients, information by midwife was provided in 70% of cases. At 6 weeks, the immunization coverage was 16% (10/61 patients), including 8% related to the intervention (vaccinated during postpartum) and 11% for fathers (7/61 fathers) with 7% newly vaccinated. Lack of time, omission in proliferation of information context in puerperium and low socio-economic backgrounds may have influenced the non-vaccination. However medical information is so far still perfectible as evidenced by the rate of patients actually sensitized and postponement vaccination after breastfeeding despite official recommendations.
Antipertussis vaccination care should also involve physicians before, during and after pregnancy, and pediatricians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether use of a computer-based clinical decision-support algorithm that used data stored in the electronic medical record increased administration of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to postpartum women.
We performed a before and after cohort study of postpartum women at an urban public teaching hospital. We compared the frequency of Tdap vaccination during the preintervention (October 1, 2008-January 14, 2009) and postintervention (January 15-April 30, 2009) time periods. We intervened by automating electronic presentation of preselected orders to physicians who provided postpartum care. The order was displayed when physicians ordered iron supplementation or patient discharge to a woman who met certain criteria. We evaluated whether patient characteristics were associated with receipt of vaccine.
Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination was more likely for postpartum women postintervention compared with preintervention (147 of 248 [59%] compared with zero of 183 [0%]; difference=59%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 53-65%). Among 248 women who delivered during the postintervention period, those who met pharmacologic criteria for decision support rule activation were vaccinated more often than those who did not meet criteria (146 of 232 [63%] compared with one of 16 [6%]; difference=57%; 95% CI 43-70%). Race and ethnicity and cesarean delivery were not associated with vaccine receipt; however, there was a lower likelihood of vaccination among older women (P=.05 by a trend test across age quartiles).
We implemented a computer-based clinical decision-support algorithm that dramatically increased Tdap vaccination of postpartum women. Deployment of our algorithm in hospitals that have clinical decision support systems should increase rates of this important postpartum preventive intervention.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/2010; 116(1):51-7. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181e40a9f · 5.18 Impact Factor
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