Helicobacter pylori CagA Phosphorylation-Independent Function in Epithelial Proliferation and Inflammation

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.
Cell host & microbe (Impact Factor: 12.19). 02/2009; 5(1):23-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2008.11.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CagA, a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), is delivered into gastric epithelial cells and exists in phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms. The biological activity of the phosphorylated form is well established; however, function(s) of the nonphosphorylated form remain elusive. Here, we report that a conserved motif in the C-terminal region of CagA, which is distinct from the EPIYA motifs used for phosphorylation and which we designate CRPIA (conserved repeat responsible for phosphorylation-independent activity), plays pivotal roles in Hp pathogenesis. The CRPIA motif in nonphosphorylated CagA was involved in interacting with activated Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, leading to the sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling in response to Hp infection. This in turn led to the activation of beta-catenin and NF-kappaB signaling, which promote proliferation and inflammation, respectively. Thus, nonphosphorylated CagA activity contributes to the epithelial proliferative and proinflammatory responses associated with development of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection is the major etiological factor of gastric carcinoma. This disease is the result of a long, multistep, and multifactorial process, which occurs only in a small proportion of patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric carcinoma development is influenced by host genetic susceptibility factors, environmental factors, and H. pylori virulence. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and variability that affects H. pylori virulence factors may be useful to identify strains with different degrees of pathogenicity. This review will focus on VacA and CagA that have polymorphic regions that impact their functional properties. The characterization of H. pylori vacA and cagA-associated could be useful for identifying patients at highest risk of disease, who could be offered H. pylori eradication therapy and who could be included in programs of more intensive surveillance in an attempt to reduce gastric carcinoma incidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Baillière&#x027 s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology 12/2014; 28(6):1003-1015. DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2014.09.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Helicobacter pylori chronic infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA)-positive H. pylori strains increase the risk of gastric pathology. The carcinogenic potential of CagA is linked to its polymorphic EPIYA motif variants. The goals of this study were to investigate the frequency of cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori in Mexican patients with gastric pathologies and to assess the association of cagA EPIYA motif patterns with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Methods A total of 499 patients were studied; of these, 402 had chronic gastritis, 77 had peptic ulcer, and 20 had gastric cancer. H. pylori DNA, cagA, and the EPIYA motifs were detected in total DNA from gastric biopsies by PCR. The type and number of EPIYA segments were determined by the electrophoretic patterns. To confirm the PCR results, 20 amplicons of the cagA 3′ variable region were sequenced, and analyzed in silico, and the amino acid sequence was predicted with MEGA software, version 5. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the associations between the EPIYA motif type and gastric pathology and between the number of EPIYA-C segments and peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Results H. pylori DNA was found in 287 (57.5%) of the 499 patients, and 214 (74%) of these patients were cagA-positive. The frequency of cagA-positive H. pylori was 74.6% (164/220) in chronic gastritis patients, 73.6% (39/53) in peptic ulcer patients, and 78.6% (11/14) in gastric cancer patients. The EPIYA-ABC pattern was more frequently observed in chronic gastritis patients (79.3%, 130/164), while the EPIYA-ABCC sequence was more frequently observed in peptic ulcer (64.1%, 25/39) and gastric cancer patients (54.5%, 6/11). However, the risks of peptic ulcer (OR = 7.0, 95% CI = 3.3–15.1; p < 0.001) and gastric cancer (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.5–22.1) were significantly increased in individuals who harbored the EPIYA-ABCC cagA gene pattern. Conclusions cagA-positive H. pylori is highly prevalent in southern Mexico, and all CagA variants were of the western type. The cagA alleles that code for EPIYA-ABCC motif patterns are associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer.
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    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e111338. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111338 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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