Surface-engineered dendrimers: a solution for toxicity issues.
ABSTRACT The nature of the groups that reside on the periphery of dendrimers and have contact with the surrounding media is the primary factor that controls the surface-related physico-chemical characteristics of these macromolecules. Therefore, transformation/tailoring of the peripheral functionalities of dendrimers is an economical way to change the overall behaviour of a particular dendrimer class or to impart new properties. In addition, the yields of the completely modified macromolecules could provide valuable information for the accessibility and the back folding of the moieties placed at the dendritic surfaces. The present article reviews the parent toxicity issues associated with cationic dendrimers like PAMAM and PPI, and examines the possibility of addressing this aspect through surface engineering with conjugation of biocompatible molecules.
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ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that galactosyl ceramide (GalCer) and its 3'-sulfated derivative, sulfatide (SGalCer), may act as alternate coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in CD4(-) cells. Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) may also be necessary for fusion of HIV-1 and host cell membranes. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine which GSL was the best ligand for both recombinant and virus-associated gp120, we found that SGalCer was the best ligand for each rgp120 and HIV-1 isolate tested. Therefore, novel multivalent glycodendrimers, which mimic the carbohydrate clustering reportedly found in lipid rafts, were synthesized based on the carbohydrate moiety of SGalCer. Here we describe the synthesis of a polysulfated galactose functionalized, fifth generation DAB dendrimer (PS Gal 64mer), containing on average two sulfate groups per galactose residue. Its ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection of cultured indicator cells was compared to that of dextran sulfate (DxS), a known, potent, binding inhibitor of HIV-1. The results indicate that the PS Gal 64mer inhibited infection by the HIV-1 isolates tested as well as DxS.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2004; 48(5):1614-23. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review critically examines current understanding of the kinetics and biodistribution of antisense oligonucleotides, both at the cellular level and at the level of the intact organism. The pharmacodynamic relationships between biodistribution and the ultimate biological effects of antisense agents are considered. The problems and advantages inherent in the use of delivery systems are discussed in the light of further enhancing in vivo pharmacological actions of oligonucleotides.Pharmaceutical Research 05/1999; 16(4):494-502. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendrimers are hyperbranched macromolecules that can be chemically synthesized to have precise structural characteristics. We used anionic, polyamidoamine, generation 3.5 dendrimers to make novel water-soluble conjugates of D(+)-glucosamine and D(+)-glucosamine 6-sulfate with immuno-modulatory and antiangiogenic properties respectively. Dendrimer glucosamine inhibited Toll-like receptor 4-mediated lipopolysaccharide induced synthesis of pro-inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, IL-8) and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6) from human dendritic cells and macrophages but allowed upregulation of the costimulatory molecules CD25, CD80, CD83 and CD86. Dendrimer glucosamine 6-sulfate blocked fibroblast growth factor-2 mediated endothelial cell proliferation and neoangiogenesis in human Matrigel and placental angiogenesis assays. When dendrimer glucosamine and dendrimer glucosamine 6-sulfate were used together in a validated and clinically relevant rabbit model of scar tissue formation after glaucoma filtration surgery, they increased the long-term success of the surgery from 30% to 80% (P = 0.029). We conclude that synthetically engineered macromolecules such as the dendrimers described here can be tailored to have defined immuno-modulatory and antiangiogenic properties, and they can be used synergistically to prevent scar tissue formation.Nature Biotechnology 09/2004; 22(8):977-84. · 32.44 Impact Factor