Personality and lifestyle in relation to dementia incidence
ABSTRACT High neuroticism has been associated with a greater risk of dementia, and an active/socially integrated lifestyle with a lower risk of dementia. The aim of the current study was to explore the separate and combined effects of neuroticism and extraversion on the risk of dementia, and to examine whether lifestyle factors may modify this association.
A population-based cohort of 506 older people with no dementia from the Kungsholmen Project, Stockholm, Sweden, was followed up for an average of 6 years. Personality traits were assessed using the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Dementia was diagnosed by specialists according to DSM-III-R criteria.
Neither high neuroticism nor low extraversion alone was related to significantly higher incidence of dementia. However, among people with an inactive or socially isolated lifestyle, low neuroticism was associated with a decreased dementia risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27-0.96). When compared to persons with high neuroticism and high extraversion, a decreased risk of dementia was detected in individuals with low neuroticism and high extraversion (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.28-0.94), but not among persons with low neuroticism and low extraversion (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.57-1.60), nor high neuroticism and low extraversion (HR = 0.97 95% CI = 0.57-1.65). Stratified analysis by lifestyle showed that the inverse association of low neuroticism and high extraversion in combination was present only among the inactive or socially isolated persons.
Low neuroticism in combination with high extraversion is the personality trait associated with the lowest dementia risk; however, among socially isolated individuals even low neuroticism alone seems to decrease dementia risk.
- SourceAvailable from: Jacques Epelbaum
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- "associated with cognitive impairment and AD in transversal (Duchek et al., 2007) and 19 prospective studies (Wang et al., 2009;Duberstein et al., 2011). More specifically, two "
ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous cognitive status that can be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is particularly relevant to focus on prodromal stages of AD such as MCI, because patho-physiological abnormalities of AD start years before the dementia stage. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy resulting from AD lesions and cerebrovascular lesions [i.e., white matter lesions (WML), lacunar strokes, and strokes] are often revealed concurrently on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MCI subjects. Personality changes have been reported to be associated with MCI status and early AD. More specifically, an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness have been reported, suggesting that higher and lower scores, respectively, in neuroticism and conscientiousness are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. However, personality changes have not been studied concomitantly with pathological structural brain alterations detected on MRI in patients suffering from MCI. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between MTL atrophy, WML, lacunar strokes, and personality traits in such patients. The severity of WML was strongly associated with lower levels of conscientiousness and higher levels of neuroticism. Conversely, no association was detected between personality traits and the presence of lacunar strokes or MTL atrophy. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that personality changes occurring in a MCI population, at high risk of AD, are associated with WML, which can induce executive dysfunctions, rather than with MTL atrophy.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 07/2014; 6:195. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00195 · 4.00 Impact Factor
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- "Active individuals have more opportunities to engage with others, leading to an emotionally positive state and lower stress, thus delaying dementia onset . Indeed, an active lifestyle has been shown to counteract the negative effect of stress-prone personality, neuroticism, on dementia risk . Additionally, previous studies have related psychosocial stress to accelerated progression of coronary disease, and adequate social support may modify the negative effect of depression on the progression of the disease  . "
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an active lifestyle delays age at dementia onset. This study included 388 incident dementia cases (DSM-III-R criteria) that developed over a 9-year follow-up period among 1,375 baseline dementia-free community dwellers with good cognitive function (MMSE >23) (mean age = 81.2) from the Kungsholmen Project. An active lifestyle was defined as participation in mental, physical, or social activity. We used linear regression models to estimate influence of baseline active lifestyle on age at onset of incident dementia and general linear models to estimate mean age at dementia onset. Age at onset of dementia was significantly older in persons who had higher levels of participation in mental, physical, or social activity (β: 0.18, 0.29 and 0.23 respectively, p < 0.001 for all the activities) independent of education, medical condition, functional status, and other confounders including APOE. When the three types of activities were integrated into an index, we found that the broader the spectrum of participation in the activities, the later the onset of disease (β = 0.93, p = 0.01 for participating in two activities, and β = 1.42, p < 0.001 for three activities). There were 17 months difference in mean age at dementia onset between the inactive group and the most active group. An active lifestyle operates as a protective factor for dementia by delaying the clinical onset of the disease. These findings highlight the relevance of encouraging old adults to have active lifestyles, which could have a great impact on public health.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2012; 31(4):835-42. DOI:10.3233/JAD-2012-120724 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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- "Emotional wellness may compensate for social wellness. Adults with no social networks and low neurotic personalities had less risk for cognitive impairment compared with adults with no social networks and high neurotic personalities (Wang et al., 2009). Acknowledging the limitations, the literature highlights the apparent interconnectedness of each dimension of wellness and the importance of evaluating older adults holistically. "
ABSTRACT: Objective: Examine how wellness in six dimensions (occupational, social, intellectual, physical, emotional, and spiritual) protects cognition in aging adults. Background: cognitive impairment increases with age. Baby boomers represent a significant percent of the population at risk for cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment has a negative impact on nursing resources, health care finances, patient mortality, and quality of life. Wellness and prevention is one focus of Institute of Medicine's vision for the future of nursing. Method: Literature was retrieved from Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and MEDLINE. Research that examined the affect of wellness in each of the six dimensions on cognition in older adults was included. Results: One or more of the following may protect cognition in aging: midlife occupation complexity, marriage, social networks, formal education, intellectual activities, physical activity, healthy nutrition, motivational ability, purpose in life, and spirituality. Conclusion: Wellness in one or more of the six dimensions may protect cognition in aging. The cognitive protective benefits may increase when wellness in more than one dimension is demonstrated. High wellness in one dimension may protect cognition by compensating for low wellness in another dimension. The interconnectedness of each of the dimensions signifies the importance of evaluating older adults holistically. Wellness throughout the life span may result in improved cognition in aging. Application: Future research is needed to examine the relationship between the six dimensions of wellness and cognition, and to determine if one dimension of wellness is a significant predictor of cognitive health in aging adults.Journal of Holistic Nursing 06/2012; 30(3):195-204. DOI:10.1177/0898010112440883