Article

Elements of morphology: Standard terminology for the ear

Department of Genetics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.05). 01/2009; 149A(1):40-60. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32599
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions of the human phenotype and facilitate reliable comparisons of findings among patients. Discussions with other workers in dysmorphology and related fields, such as developmental biology and molecular genetics, will become more precise. Here we introduce the anatomy of the ear and define and illustrate the terms that describe the major characteristics of the ear.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Sep 04, 2015
4 Followers
 · 
538 Views
 · 
148 Downloads
  • Source
    • "Ear morphology exhibits strong variation amongst real humans to the extent that it has been used to identify individuals and in forensic work for over a century (Bertillon, 1893; Pflug and Busch, 2012; Abaza et al., 2013). Ear biometrics are also of great interest to human geneticists (Hunter et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structure-from-motion and multiview-stereo together offer a computer vision technique for reconstructing detailed 3D models from overlapping images of anything from large landscapes to microscopic features. Because such models can be generated from ordinary photographs taken with standard cameras in ordinary lighting conditions, these techniques are revolutionising digital recording and analysis in archaeology and related subjects such as palaeontology, museum studies and art history. However, most published treatments so far have focused merely on this technique's ability to produce low-cost, high quality representations, with one or two also suggesting new opportunities for citizen science. However, perhaps the major artefact scale advantage comes from significantly enhanced possibilities for 3D morphometric analysis and comparative taxonomy. We wish to stimulate further discussion of this new research domain by considering a case study using a famous and contentious set of archaeological objects: the terracotta warriors of China's first emperor.
    Journal of Archaeological Science 09/2014; 49:249-254. DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2014.05.014 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Ear morphology exhibits strong variation amongst real humans to the extent that it has been used to identify individuals and in forensic work for over a century (Bertillon, 1893; Pflug and Busch, 2012; Abaza et al., 2013). Ear biometrics are also of great interest to human geneticists (Hunter et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structure-from-motion and multiview-stereo together offer a computer vision technique for reconstructing detailed 3D models from overlapping images of anything from large landscapes to microscopic features. Because such models can be generated from ordinary photographs taken with standard cameras in ordinary lighting conditions, these techniques are revolutionising digital recording and analysis in archaeology and related subjects such as palaeontology, museum studies and art history. However, most published treatments so far have focused merely on this technique’s ability to produce low-cost, high quality representations, with one or two also suggesting new opportunities for citizen science. However, perhaps the major artefact scale advantage comes from significantly enhanced possibilities for 3D morphometric analysis and comparative taxonomy. We wish to stimulate further discussion of this new research domain by considering a case study using a famous and contentious set of archaeological objects: the terracotta warriors of China’s first emperor.
    Journal of Archaeological Science 01/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Although objective, our method for determining ear position is somewhat different from some clinical approaches or that advocated in the recent paper on standardizing morphological terminology of the ear and associated physical examinations (Hunter et al, 2009). We use the Procrustes alignment of a set of faces inherited from our shape analysis rather than a plane through inner canthi with the head in a " horizontal " position. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) causes extensive heterotopic bone formation due to heterozygous mutations in the glycine-serine activation domain of ACVR1 (ALK2), a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor. Anecdotal observations of facial similarity have been made by clinicians and parents, but no objective quantitative analysis of the faces of FOP patients has ever been undertaken. We delineated the common facial characteristics of 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed FOP by analyzing their face signature (face shape difference normalized against age and sex matched controls) and associated face signature graphs (with face signatures as vertices and adjacency corresponding to greatest similarity). Our analysis identified 10 affected individuals whose face signature is more homogeneous than others with FOP. This distinct subgroup showed the previously identified reduced mandible as well as newly identified features: underdevelopment of the upper orbit/supra-orbital ridge; infra-orbital prominence; and, low-set ears. These findings strongly suggest that the canonical FOP mutation variably affects the postnatal morphogenesis of the normotopic cranial skeleton in the upper midface and mandible and may have important diagnostic and functional implications.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 06/2012; 158A(6):1368-80. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.35346 · 2.05 Impact Factor
Show more