Job-related risk of latent tuberculosis infection in a homogeneous population of hospital workers in a low incidence area.
ABSTRACT Few comprehensive tuberculin surveys were carried out in a homogeneous population of health care workers (HCWs) in a low incidence area to assess the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection by different occupational groups and units.
Community and occupational factors and tuberculin skin test (TST) reactivity were determined in 1,755 HCWs.
The overall prevalence of tuberculin reactivity was 6%. Predicting factors for TST reactivity were age >47 years (OR = 2.88), history of household TB contact (OR = 2.41), years of work as HCW (OR = 2.57), physician (OR = 1.88), and working in microbiology (OR = 4.94), dialysis/nephrology (OR = 2.00), gynecology/obstetrics (OR = 2.01). In a multiple regression model working in microbiology [OR = 4.16 (1.27-13.6)], dialysis/nephrology [OR = 2.52 (1.36-4.65)], gynecology/obstetrics [OR = 2.46 (1.24-4.86)] and age >47 years [OR = 1.98 (1.14-3.46)] were significant predictors for infection.
A higher risk of latent infection can be demonstrated in well-defined groups of HCWs.
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ABSTRACT: Baseline 2-step tuberculin skin testing (TST) is recommended for health care workers (HCWs) to identify cases of the "boosting phenomenon" (i.e., a negative initial TST result followed by a positive result) and to track the risk of acquiring occupational tuberculosis. However, the 2-step TST has been shown to be insufficient to identify all cases of the booster phenomenon in older adults and refugees. The objective of this study was to identify whether a history of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and foreign birth--variables that are known to be associated with the booster phenomenon--remain predictors of a positive TST result in a group of HCWs documented to have negative 2-step TST results (i.e., 2 TSTs done 7-28 days apart with indurations <10 mm in diameter). We performed a retrospective analysis of an employee database in a tertiary care hospital in Winnipeg, Canada. The study population was comprised of 698 HCWs with negative 2-step TST results who underwent a TST 0-2 years after completion of the 2-step procedure. Forty-six HCWs (6.6%) had a positive TST result 0-2 years after the 2-step test. In a multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, BCG vaccination, foreign birth, sex, and work setting, only history of BCG vaccination (odds ratio [OR], 8.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.04-17.4), foreign birth (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.53-6.62), and high-risk work setting (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.44-5.95) were associated with a positive TST result. Even for HCWs with negative results of 2-step TST, foreign birth and history of BCG vaccination are associated with a positive result of a future TST. Some positive TST results in such HCWs are related to nonoccupational factors, including delayed boosting, rather than to conversion due to recent tuberculosis contact.Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2005; 39(11):e113-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surveillance of tobacco use is an essential component of any tobacco-control program. The information gathered can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. REPORTING PERIODS: This report covers the period 1900-1994 for per capita cigarette consumption; 1965-1991 for trends in cigarette smoking prevalence and cessation; 1974-1991 for trends in the number of cigarettes smoked daily by current smokers; 1987-1991 for recent patterns of tobacco use; 1970, 1987, and 1991 for trends in cigar/pipe smoking and snuff/chewing tobacco use; 1984-1992 for trends in state-specific prevalences of regular cigarette smoking; 1987-1992 for state-specific estimates of smokeless-tobacco use; and 1976-1993 for trends in cigarette smoking among U.S. high school seniors. Estimates of cigarette consumption are reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which uses data from the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Tobacco Institute, and other sources. The National Health Interview Survey uses household interviews to provide nationally representative estimates (for the civilian, noninstitutionalized population) of cigarette smoking and other behaviors related to tobacco use. The Behavioral Risk Factor surveillance System uses telephone surveys of civilian, noninstitutionalized adults (> or = 18 years of age) to provide state-specific estimates of current cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco. The University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research uses school-based, self-administered questionnaires to gather data on cigarette smoking from a representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. During the period 1900-1963, per capita cigarette consumption increased; after 1964, consumption declined. During the years 1965-1991, current cigarette smoking prevalence among persons ages > or = 18 years declined overall and in every sociodemographic category examined. Decrease in current smoking prevalence was slow in some groups (e.g., among persons with fewer years of formal education). Both the prevalence of never smoking and the prevalence of cessation increased from 1965 through 1991. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, any tobacco smoking, and any tobacco use was highest among American Indians/Alaska Natives and non-Hispanic blacks and lowest among Asians/Pacific Islanders. The prevalence of cigar smoking and pipe smoking has declined substantially since 1970. The prevalence of smokeless-tobacco use among white males ages 18-34 years was higher in 1987 and 1991 than in 1970; among persons > or = 45 years of age, the use of smokeless tobacco was more common among blacks than whites in 1970 and 1987. Cigarette smoking prevalence has decreased in most states. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was especially high among men in West Virginia, Montana, and several southern states. From 1984-1993, prevalence of cigarette smoking remained constant among U.S. high school seniors. However, prevalence increased slightly for male seniors and white seniors, decreased slightly for female high school seniors, and decreased sharply for black high school seniors. With the exceptions of increases in cigarette smoking among white and male high school seniors and in the use of smokeless tobacco among white males ages 18-34 years, reductions in tobacco use occurred in every subgroup examined. This decrease must continue if the national health objectives for the year 2000 are to be reached. Surveillance of tobacco use is ongoing. Effective interventions that discourage initiation and encourage cessation are being disseminated throughout the United States.MMWR. CDC surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. CDC surveillance summaries / Centers for Disease Control 11/1994; 43(3):1-43.
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ABSTRACT: The increased rate of tuberculosis (TB) infection and transmission from patients to health care workers (HCWs) has brought awareness of the need for better surveillance programs. The two-step purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test decreases the misinterpretation of a "boosted reaction" as a recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HCWs. We reviewed the medical records of 4082 HCWs at an inner-city medical center who had PPD skin-testing performed as a component of the TB medical surveillance program during the years 1994 and 1995. Of those HCWs tested, 3896 (95.4%) returned for the PPD skin-test evaluation. Of those 3896 HCWs, 3659 (93.9%) had a negative baseline PPD skin test, and 237 (6.1%) had a positive skin test. Of those HCWs with a negative baseline skin test, 252 (6.9%) were eligible for the second PPD skin test. Of the 241 who returned for their second PPD skin-test reading, six (2.5%) had positive results. All six cases were foreign-born physician residents with a previous history of Bacille bilié de Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. We conclude that the two-step PPD skin test method is not indicted for HCWs at this urban medical facility.Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 06/1999; 41(5):393-6. · 1.85 Impact Factor