Plasma free metanephrines are superior to urine and plasma catecholamines and urine catecholamine metabolites for the investigation of phaeochromocytoma.
ABSTRACT To compare the relative diagnostic efficacy of several different tests used to establish a diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma, in patients with a proven diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma, and in hospital patients with significant disease of other types.
We prospectively compared biochemical markers of catecholamine output and metabolism in plasma and urine in 22 patients with histologically proven phaeochromocytoma, 15 intensive care unit (ICU) patients, 30 patients on chronic haemodialysis and both hypertensive (n = 10) and normotensive (n = 16) controls.
Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted. At the point of maximum efficiency, plasma free metanephrines showed 100% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity, compared with plasma catecholamines (78.6% and 70.7%), urine catecholamines (78.6% and 87.8%), urine metanephrines (85.7% and 95.1%), and urine hydroxymethoxymandelic acid (HMMA or VMA) (93.0% and 75.8%). All patients with phaeochromocytoma had plasma free metanephrine concentrations at least 27% above the upper limit of the reference range. Only three other patients (two on haemodialysis and one in ICU) had PFM concentrations more than 50% above the upper limit of the reference range.
In patients with phaeochromocytoma, plasma free metanephrines displayed superior diagnostic sensitivity and specificity compared with other biochemical markers of catecholamine output and metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Measurements of the 3-O-methylated metabolites of catecholamines [metanephrines (MNs)] in plasma or urine are recommended for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. It is unclear whether these tests are susceptible to dietary influences. The aim of the study was to determine the short-term influence of a catecholamine-rich diet on plasma and urinary fractionated MNs. We conducted a crossover study in a specialist medical center involving 26 healthy adults. Interventions: Subjects consumed catecholamine-rich nuts and fruits at fixed times on one day (about 35 mumol dopamine and 1 mumol norepinephrine) and catecholamine-poor products on another day. Blood and urine samples were collected at timed intervals before, during, and after experimental and control interventions. Isotope-dilution mass spectrometry-based measurements of plasma and urinary concentrations of free and deconjugated 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), normetanephrine (NMN), and MN were made. The catecholamine-rich diet had substantial effects (up to 3-fold increases) on plasma concentrations and urinary outputs of free and deconjugated 3-MT. Dietary catecholamines had negligible influences on free NMN in plasma and urine, but substantial effects (up to 2-fold increases) on deconjugated NMN in plasma and urine. Concentrations of free and deconjugated MN in plasma and urine remained unaffected. Dietary restrictions should be considered to minimize false-positive results for urinary and plasma deconjugated MNs during diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Similar considerations appear warranted for plasma and urinary free 3-MT, but not for free NMN or MN, indicating advantages of measurements of the free compared to deconjugated metabolites.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2009; 94(8):2841-9. DOI:10.1210/jc.2009-0303 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resistant hypertension, defined as failure to achieve target blood pressure despite the use of optimal or maximum doses of at least 3 agents, one of which is a diuretic, or requiring 4 or more medications to achieve blood pressure goal, is likely to affect up to 20% of all patients with hypertension. Apparent resistant hypertension may be caused by medication nonadherence, substances that either interfere with antihypertensive mediations or cause blood pressure elevation, and under- or inappropriate medication treatment. Certain patient characteristics are associated with the presence of resistant hypertension and include chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and presence of end-organ damage (microalbuminuria, retinopathy, left-ventricular hypertrophy). Secondary causes of resistant hypertension are not uncommon and include obstructive sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, primary aldosteronism, renal artery stenosis, pheochromocytoma, and Cushing's disease. Initial medication management usually includes adding or increasing the dose of a diuretic, which is effective in lowering the blood pressure of a large number of patients with resistant hypertension. Additional management options include maximizing lifestyle modification, combination therapy of antihypertensive agents depending on individual patient characteristics, adding less-commonly used fourth- or fifth-line antihypertensive agents, and referral to a hypertension specialist.Integrated Blood Pressure Control 07/2009; 2:9-23.
- Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 09/2009; 24(6):985-7. DOI:10.1053/j.jvca.2009.06.008 · 1.48 Impact Factor