Osteopontin induces airway remodeling and lung fibroblast activation in a murine model of asthma.
ABSTRACT Airway remodeling is a central feature of asthma; however, the mechanisms underlying its development have not been fully elucidated. We have demonstrated that osteopontin, an inflammatory cytokine and an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with profibrotic properties, is up-regulated in a murine model of allergen-induced airway remodeling. In the present study, we determined whether osteopontin plays a functional role in airway remodeling. Osteopontin (OPN)-deficient (OPN(-/-)) and wild-type mice were sensitized and exposed to inhaled ovalbumin (OVA) or saline for 5 weeks. Collagen production, peribronchial smooth muscle area, mucus-producing cell number, and bronchoalveolar cell counts were assessed. The functional behavior and phenotype of lung fibroblasts from OVA-treated OPN(-/-) and from wild-type mice were studied using ex vivo cultures. OVA-treated OPN(-/-) mice exhibited reduced lung collagen content, smooth muscle area, mucus-producing cells, and inflammatory cell accumulation as compared with wild-type mice. Reduced matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were observed in OVA-treated OPN(-/-) mice. Lung fibroblasts from OVA-treated OPN(-/-) mice showed reduced proliferation, migration, collagen deposition, and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in comparison with OVA-treated wild-type lung fibroblasts. Thus, OPN is key for the development of allergen-induced airway remodeling in mice. In response to allergen, OPN induces the switching of lung fibroblasts to a pro-fibrogenic myofibroblast phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate if the aerobic training (AT) reverses airway remodeling (AR) in an asthma model. BALB/c were divided into four groups: control (unsensitized and untrained); ovalbumin (OVA: sensitized and untrained); AT (unsensitized and trained) and OVA + AT. Allergic inflammation was induced with intraperitoneal and OVA inhalation. AT (low intensity; 5×/week; 60 min/session) was performed at 7, 15, and 30 days. Leukocyte counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; the expression of IL-5, eotaxin, RANTES, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1); AR features (airway smooth muscle, epithelium thickness, collagen and elastic fibers, mucus production); and AR inducers (transforming growing factor-beta, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor). OVA induced an increase in leukocyte airway migration and increased AR features (P < 0.05). After 7 days, AT reversed the OVA-induced eosinophil and macrophage airway migration, the expression of IL-5, eotaxin, RANTES, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and all AR inducers. However, total reversion of the AR features and inducers and airway inflammation occurred only after 15 days of AT compared with the OVA groups (P < 0.05) and the effects were maintained until the 30th day. AT reverses AR after 15 days and this effect is preceded by the inhibition of leukocyte migration and occurs simultaneously with the reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators and AR inducers.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 09/2014; · 3.21 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2014; 190(4):472-4. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The calcium-binding protein S100A4 is implicated in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, the stimulation of angiogenesis, the progression of fibrosis, and inflammatory disorders. We investigated the expression of S100A4 and correlated it with clinical disease activity as well as with the levels of osteopontin (OPN), soluble syndecan-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). To reinforce the findings at the functional level, we examined the expressions of S100A4 and OPN in the retinas of diabetic rats and in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) following exposure to VEGF and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).Molecular vision 09/2014; 2014(20):1209-1224. · 1.99 Impact Factor